6,282 research outputs found

    Entangled Mixed States and Local Purification

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    Linden, Massar and Popescu have recently given an optimization argument to show that a single two-qubit Werner state, or any other mixture of the maximally entangled Bell states, cannot be purified by local operations and classical communications. We generalise their result and give a simple explanation. In particular, we show that no purification scheme using local operations and classical communications can produce a pure singlet from any mixed state of two spin-1/2 particles. More generally, no such scheme can produce a maximally entangled state of any pair of finite-dimensional systems from a generic mixed state. We also show that the Werner states belong to a large class of states whose fidelity cannot be increased by such a scheme.Comment: 3 pages, Latex with Revtex. Small clarifications and reference adde

    The measurement of boundary layers on a compressor blade in cascade. Volume 1: Experimental technique, analysis and results

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    Measurements were made of the boundary layers and wakes about a highly loaded, double-circular-arc compressor blade in cascade. These laser Doppler velocimetry measurements have yielded a very detailed and precise data base with which to test the application of viscous computational codes to turbomachinery. In order to test the computational codes at off-design conditions, the data were acquired at a chord Reynolds number of 500,000 and at three incidence angles. Moreover, these measurements have supplied some physical insight into these very complex flows. Although some natural transition is evident, laminar boundary layers usually detach and subsequently reattach as either fully or intermittently turbulent boundary layers. These transitional separation bubbles play an important role in the development of most of the boundary layers and wakes measured in this cascade and the modeling or computing of these bubbles should prove to be the key aspect in computing the entire cascade flow field. In addition, the nonequilibrium turbulent boundary layers on these highly loaded blades always have some region of separation near the trailing edge of the suction surface. These separated flows, as well as the subsequent near wakes, show no similarity and should prove to be a challenging test for the viscous computational codes

    Quantum Analogue Computing

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    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us, and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data is encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data is encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous variable quantum computers (CVQC) becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.Comment: 10 pages, to appear in the Visions 2010 issue of Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc.

    The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades

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    The purpose of NASA Research Grant NSG-3264 is to characterize the flowfield about an airfoil in a cascade at chord Reynolds number(R sub C)near 5 x 10 to the 5th power. The program is experimental and combines laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) measurements with flow visualization techniques in order to obtain detailed flow data, e.g., boundary layer profiles, points of separation and the transition zone, on a cascade of highly-loaded compressor blades. The information provided by this study is to serve as benchmark data for the evaluation of current and future compressor cascade predictive models, in this way aiding in the compressor design process. Summarized is the research activity for the period 1 December 1985 through 1 June 1986. Progress made from 1 June 1979 through 1 December 1985 is presented. Detailed measurements have been completed at the initial cascade angle of 53 deg. (incidence angle 5 degrees). A three part study, based on that data, has been accepted as part of the 1986 Gas Turbine Conference and will be submitted for subsequent journal publication. Also presented are data for a second cascade angle of 45 deg (an incidence angle of 3 degrees)

    Results on formal stepwise design in Z

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    Stepwise design involves the process of deriving a concrete model of a software system from a given abstract one. This process is sometimes known as refinement. There are numerous refinement theories proposed in the literature, each of which stipulates the nature of the relationship between an abstract specification and its concrete counterpart. This paper considers six refinement theories in Z that have been proposed by various people over the years. However, no systematic investigation of these theories, or results on the relationships between them, have been presented or published before. This paper shows that these theories fall into two important categories and proves that the theories in each category are equivalent

    An analysis of total correctness refinement models for partial relation semantics I

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    This is the first of a series of papers devoted to the thorough investigation of (total correctness) refinement based on an underlying partial relational model. In this paper we restrict attention to operation refinement. We explore four theories of refinement based on an underlying partial relation model for specifications, and we show that they are all equivalent. This, in particular, sheds some light on the relational completion operator (lifted-totalisation) due to Wookcock which underlines data refinement in, for example, the specification language Z. It further leads to two simple alternative models which are also equivalent to the others

    eta-meson photoproduction off protons and deuterons

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    We present a unitary and gauge-invariant model with coupled channels, which provides a consistent description of pion photoproduction off nucleons in the E0+_{0+} channel and eta-meson photoproduction off protons and deuterons. An effective field theory with hadrons and photons is constructed, which includes non-resonant Born terms as well as the S11_{11}(1535) and S11_{11}(1650) baryon resonances. Due to the coupling between the channels, the production of eta-mesons is strongly affected by the S11_{11}(1650) although its direct coupling to the ő∑\etaN channel is negligible. The rho- and omega-meson exchange terms are important for achieving a consistent description of both pion- and photon-induced reactions.Comment: 11 pages Latex, 4 Postscript Figure
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