535 research outputs found

    On robust and efficient designs for risk estimation in epidemiologic studies

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    We consider the design problem for the estimation of several scalar measures suggested in the epidemiological literature for comparing the success rate in two samples. The designs considered so far in the literature are local in the sense that they depend on the unknown probabilities of success in the two groups and are not necessarily robust with respect to their misspecification. A maximin approach is proposed to obtain efficient and robust designs for the estimation of the relative risk, attributable risk and odds ratio, whenever a range for the success rates can be specified by the experimenter. It is demonstrated that the designs obtained by this method are usually more efficient than the uniform design, which allocates equal sample sizes to the two groups. --two by two table,odds ratio,relativ risk,attributable risk,optimal design,efficient design

    Multiplier bootstrap of tail copulas with applications

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    For the problem of estimating lower tail and upper tail copulas, we propose two bootstrap procedures for approximating the distribution of the corresponding empirical tail copulas. The first method uses a multiplier bootstrap of the empirical tail copula process and requires estimation of the partial derivatives of the tail copula. The second method avoids this estimation problem and uses multipliers in the two-dimensional empirical distribution function and in the estimates of the marginal distributions. For both multiplier bootstrap procedures, we prove consistency. For these investigations, we demonstrate that the common assumption of the existence of continuous partial derivatives in the the literature on tail copula estimation is so restrictive, such that the tail copula corresponding to tail independence is the only tail copula with this property. Moreover, we are able to solve this problem and prove weak convergence of the empirical tail copula process under nonrestrictive smoothness assumptions that are satisfied for many commonly used models. These results are applied in several statistical problems, including minimum distance estimation and goodness-of-fit testing.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.3150/12-BEJ425 the Bernoulli (http://isi.cbs.nl/bernoulli/) by the International Statistical Institute/Bernoulli Society (http://isi.cbs.nl/BS/bshome.htm

    Optimal designs for comparing curves

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    We consider the optimal design problem for a comparison of two regression curves, which is used to establish the similarity between the dose response relationships of two groups. An optimal pair of designs minimizes the width of the confidence band for the difference between the two regression functions. Optimal design theory (equivalence theorems, efficiency bounds) is developed for this non standard design problem and for some commonly used dose response models optimal designs are found explicitly. The results are illustrated in several examples modeling dose response relationships. It is demonstrated that the optimal pair of designs for the comparison of the regression curves is not the pair of the optimal designs for the individual models. In particular it is shown that the use of the optimal designs proposed in this paper instead of commonly used "non-optimal" designs yields a reduction of the width of the confidence band by more than 50%.Comment: 27 pages, 3 figure

    Detecting relevant changes in time series models

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    Most of the literature on change-point analysis by means of hypothesis testing considers hypotheses of the form H0 : \theta_1 = \theta_2 vs. H1 : \theta_1 != \theta_2, where \theta_1 and \theta_2 denote parameters of the process before and after a change point. This paper takes a different perspective and investigates the null hypotheses of no relevant changes, i.e. H0 : ||\theta_1 - \theta_2|| ? \leq \Delta?, where || \cdot || is an appropriate norm. This formulation of the testing problem is motivated by the fact that in many applications a modification of the statistical analysis might not be necessary, if the difference between the parameters before and after the change-point is small. A general approach to problems of this type is developed which is based on the CUSUM principle. For the asymptotic analysis weak convergence of the sequential empirical process has to be established under the alternative of non-stationarity, and it is shown that the resulting test statistic is asymptotically normal distributed. Several applications of the methodology are given including tests for relevant changes in the mean, variance, parameter in a linear regression model and distribution function among others. The finite sample properties of the new tests are investigated by means of a simulation study and illustrated by analyzing a data example from economics.Comment: Keywords: change-point analysis, CUSUM, relevant changes, precise hypotheses, strong mixing, weak convergence under the alternative AMS Subject Classification: 62M10, 62F05, 62G1