2,360 research outputs found

    Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med

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    PURPOSE: To provide recommendations for the anaesthetic and peri-operative management for thrombectomy procedure in stroke patients DESIGN: A consensus committee of 15 experts issued from the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine (Société Française d'Anesthésie et Réanimation, SFAR), the Association of French-language Neuro-Anaesthetists (Association des Neuro-Anesthésistes Réanimateurs de Langue Francaise, ANARLF), the French Neuro-Vascular Society (Société Francaise de Neuro-Vasculaire, SFNV), the French Neuro-Radiology Society (Société Francaise de Neuro-Radiologie, SFNR) and the French Study Group on Haemostasis and Thrombosis (Groupe Français d'Études sur l'Hémostase et la Thrombose, GFHT) was convened, under the supervision of two expert coordinators from the SFAR and the ANARLF. A formal conflict-of-interest policy was developed at the outset of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guideline elaboration process was conducted independently of any industry funding. The authors were required to follow the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to guide their assessment of quality of evidence. METHODS: Four fields were defined prior to the literature search: (1) Peri-procedural management, (2) Prevention and management of secondary brain injuries, (3) Management of antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatments, (4) Post-procedural management and orientation of the patient. Questions were formulated using the PICO format (Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes) and updated as needed. Analysis of the literature was then conducted and the recommendations were formulated according to the GRADE methodology. RESULTS: The SFAR/ANARLF/SFNV/SFNR/GFHT guideline panel drew up 18 recommendations regarding anaesthetic management of mechanical thrombectomy procedures. Due to a lack of data in the literature allowing to conclude with high certainty on relevant clinical outcomes, the experts decided to formulate these guidelines as "Professional Practice Recommendations" (PPR) rather than "Formalized Expert Recommendations". After two rounds of rating and several amendments, a strong agreement was reached on 100% of the recommendations. No recommendation could be formulated for two questions. CONCLUSIONS: Strong agreement among experts was reached to provide a sizable number of recommendations aimed at optimising anaesthetic management for thrombectomy in patients suffering from stroke

    Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

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    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

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