2,669 research outputs found

    The Structure of the Retail and Service Industries of Jefferson County

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    The intent of this study is to review the current strengths and weaknesses of the retail and services industries of Jefferson County. We use historical data to look for overall trends and 2004 county sales tax data to provide detailed insights.

    Insects and arachnids associated with musk thistle, Carduus thoermeri, in Tennessee

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    Musk thistle, Carduus thoermeri (Weinmann) (Compositae: Cynareae: Carduinae), is native to Europe and was introduced into North America in the late 1800\u27s along the eastern seaboard of Canada and the United States and in Alabama (Batra et al. 1981). Musk thistle spread quickly from the mid- Atlantic States, where it was considered to be a weed by the early 1900\u27s, to the Midwest, and became an economically important pest by 1950 (Batra et al. 1981). Cultural controls, including mowing, reduced grazing, minimization of erosion, and periodic reseeding of grass, are important in maintaining low numbers of thistle seedlings (Trumble and Kok 1982). Although chemical herbicides achieve a measure of control against thistles, rough terrain and the potential of groundwater contamination limit their use. These two limitations, as well as the threat of reintroduction of thistle from untreated areas, provided the impetus for the evaluation of alternative control techniques (Trumble and Kok 1982) . In 1968, the head weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus (Froelich) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was introduced into the United States for biological control of thistles, particularly musk thistle (Hodgson and Rees 1976). Rhinocyllus conicus reduces the number of seeds produced by infested thistle plants (Roberts and Kok 1979). Another biological control agent of musk thistle, the rosette weevil, Trichosirocalus horridus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was introduced into the United States in 1974 (Batra et al. 1981). Trichosirocalus horridus feeds on the crown tissue (Kok and trumble 1979). In 1989, R. conicus and T. horridus were introduced into Tennessee to assess their potential for biological control of musk thistle (Lambdin and Grant 1989). The natural enemies of musk thistle that coexisted with and helped to suppress this plant pest in its native habitat are not present to help suppress the population of this weed in Tennessee (Lambdin and Grant 1989) . A two-year study was initiated in conjunction with this research to better understand the diversity and specialization of the arthropod fauna that is associated with musk thistle in Tennessee. The specific objectives were to determine the species composition and seasonality of insects and arachnids associated with musk thistle and to observe the impact of selected arthropods on the plant. This introduced plant provides numerous established arthropod species with food or protection during its growing season. This research should provide preliminary information on the potential impact that R. conicus and T. horridus may have on the established arthropod fauna due to the resulting increase in competition for the resources of musk thistle and the eventual decrease in musk thistle populations. During this two-year study, approximately 103 arthropod species or groups were found on musk, thistle in Tennessee. Fifty-seven families, representing thirteen orders of insects, as well as eight families of arachnids, were collected from musk thistle. The most extensive arthropod diversity was found during the flowering stage of musk thistle. The most frequently encountered orders of insects were Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Homoptera. The two most frequently encountered families of spiders were Salticidae and Thomisidae. Only a few of the established arthropods in Tennessee were observed to cause significant damage to musk thistle. When present in large numbers, the nymphs and adults of two species of froghoppers (Homoptera: Cercopidae), Lepyronia quadrangularis (Say) and the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.), apparently stunted the growth of the plant. Froghopper nymphs were most numerous during April and early May, while the greatest number of adults were observed from early May until early June. During the bud stage, the fourlined plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae), Poecilocapsus lineatus (F.), caused foliar damage, but was not frequently found on the plant. Poecilocapsus lineatus was observed on musk thistle between the middle of May and late June. The larva of the pyralid moth, Dicymolomia julianalis (Walker), was observed to feed on developing seeds within the seed head of musk thistle. Infestation levels of D. julianalis on musk thistle seed heads during the summer of 1990 at sites in middle Tennessee averaged 10 to 15%, while those in eastern Tennessee averaged 20 to 25%. Most of the adults of this pyralid moth emerged between late July and late September. Arthropods were found on musk thistle throughout its growing season. Stem and leaf feeders (e.g., grasshoppers and froghoppers) were found in large numbers before plant flowering, which attracted the greatest variety of arthropods. A number of arthropods, such as assassin bugs, minute pirate bugs, ambush bugs, and spiders, were predaceous upon many of the insects found within the flower. Although many established arthropods utilize the resources of musk thistle, few of these arthropods cause serious damage to the reproductive capabilities of the plant

    Minimizing Regrowth When Removing Russia Olive = Points to Consider

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    This fact sheet provides the results of a variety of trials conducted to gain a greater understanding of the patterns of Russian olive regrowth and determine management practices that reduce the regrowth potential of mechanically-removed Russian olive

    Optimal feedforward recipe adjustment for CD control in semiconductor patterning

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    Acceptable yields for nanofabrication will require significant improvement in CD control. One method to achieve better run-to-run CD control is through inter-process feedforward control. The potential benefits of feedforward control include reduced run-to-run post-etch CD variance, rework, and scrap. However, measurement noise poses a significant threat to the success of feedforward control. Since the stakes are high, an incorrect control action is unacceptable. To answer this concern, this paper will focus on how to properly use the available sensor measurement in a run-to-run feedforward recipe adjustment controller. We have developed a methodology based in probability theory that detunes the controller based on the confidence in the sensor’s accuracy. Properly detuning the controller has the effect of filtering out the noise from the SEM. We will simulate this control strategy on industrial gate-etch data. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/87557/2/573_1.pd

    Euler Technology Assessment for Preliminary Aircraft Design: Compressibility Predictions by Employing the Cartesian Unstructured Grid SPLITFLOW Code

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    The objective of the second phase of the Euler Technology Assessment program was to evaluate the ability of Euler computational fluid dynamics codes to predict compressible flow effects over a generic fighter wind tunnel model. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems, using an in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaption of the volume grid during the solution to resolve high-gradient regions. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles-of-attack. The transonic pressure prediction capabilities of SPLITFLOW are shown to be improved over subsonic comparisons. The time required to generate the results from initial surface data is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment

    The Predictive Relationship Between Cultural Identity, Value Orientation, Acculturation and the Cross-Cultural Student\u27s Academic Motivation in the International School Setting

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    This predictive correlational study examined the relationships between academic motivation and cultural identity, value orientation, and acculturation for a cross-cultural student population in an international school setting. This study was conducted at an international school in Thailand and all high school students (grade 10-12) enrolled during the 2014-2015 school year comprised the sample population. Participants completed an online survey comprised of the Portraits Value Questionnaire (PVQ), Socio-Cultural Adaptive Scale (SCAS), and a subscale of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Styles (PALS 2000) instruments as well as a short demographic questionnaire. The results of the survey were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression statistics in order to identify any predictive relationships between the predictor variables (cultural identity, value orientation, and acculturation) and the criterion variable (student academic motivation). The results of the study suggest that personal value orientation and acculturation are the best predictors of extrinsic academic motivation

    A Church Music Workshop: Faculty Recital

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    This is the program for the Church Music Workshop and faculty recital featuring the following faculty artists (in order of performance): mezzo-soprano Mary Worthen, baritone Edward Smith Lyon, and tenor Steve Garner accompanied by pianist David Dennis; Steve Garner and Edward Smith Lyon accompanied by pianist Mary Worthen; the Ouachi-Bones, directed by Dr. Sim Flora; flautist and trombonist Dr. Sim Flora, the Ouachit-Bones, bass player Jeff Madlock, and pianist Cindy Burks; soprano Mary Shambarger, mezzo-soprano Mary Worthen, and organist Russell Hodges; trumpet player Craig Hamilton and organist Russell Hodges. This recital took place on September 23, 1991, in the Mabee Fine Arts Center Recital Hall

    SEDSAT 1 Advanced Photovoltaic Power System Technology Demonstration Flight

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    The University of Alabama in Huntsville Students for the Exploration and Development of Space, in cooperation with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Boeing Defense & Space, and the Kopin Corporation, are designing an advanced electrical power system for a small satellite. This system incorporates recent advances in three areas: photovoltaic cell design, battery energy storage design, and DC·DC power conversion technology. Introducing these advances into a flight power system will produce a satellite power system with double the capability of similar systems utilizing current technology