30 research outputs found

    Effetto della memantina su modelli animali di disturbi dell'umore

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    AIM: Mood disorders are one of the leading causes of morbidity, disability and premature mortality contributing for about 50% of the non-fatal burden of mental disorders. Bipolar disorder (BD) has a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1.0% for BD-I, 1.1% for BD-II and 2.4% for BD-NOS. Eighty-three percent of BD cases are classified as “seriously severe” and 17.1% as “moderately severe”. Long-term prophylactic treatment of BD aimed at preventing recurrences of the various phases is a leading clinical and research challenge for contemporary psychiatry. Dopaminergic behavioural supersensitivity induced by chronic treatment with antidepressants might be involved both in the antidepressant action and in the mechanisms underlying antidepressant treatment-related mania (antidepressant-induced mood switch and possibly, rapid cycling bipolar disorder). The stimulation of NMDA receptors is required for the development of dopamine receptor sensitization induced by antidepressants. Indeed, the administration of MK-801, a selective non-competitive NMDA receptor blocker, completely prevents the dopamine receptor sensitization induced by imipramine and by electroconvulsive shock. These observations strongly suggest that the non-competitive blockade of NMDA receptors should result in an anti-manic and mood stabilizing action, and that it should also be effective in the treatment of the disorders resistant to currently used antimanic and mood stabilizers. Memantine is a non-competitve NMDA receptor antagonist, she has been on the market in since 1982 for the treatment of Parkinsonism, before its approval in 2002 and 2004 by EMEA and FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's Disease. Although its actual efficacy on the AD patient's quality of life has proven to be moderate, several pre-marketing and post marketing studies have demonstrated the excellent safety and tolerability profile of the drug. Moreover, the drug has been used off-label in a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, with conflicting and inconclusive results. To further clarify the farmacology of memantine, I studied hers effect in animal models of in mood disorders. METHOD: Male and Female rats treated with memantine in animal model of: • dopaminergic behavioural supersensitivity • bipolard disorders by chronic antidepressant • stress • catatonia by haloperidol • tardive dyskinesia by cronic haloperidol RESULTS: The results show that memantine, at variance with antidepressant treatments (including drugs, electroconvulsive schock, REM-sleep deprivation), fails to induce dopaminergic behavioural supersensitivity. Therefore has not an antidepressant action. Memantine prevents not only, as observed with MK-801, the sensitization of dopamine receptors induced by chronic imipramine (mania), but also the ensuing desensitization of those receptors and the associated depressive-like behavior. Thus stabilizes the course of the manic-depressive illness Furthermore, memantine prevents stress, catatonia and tardive dyskinesia. This observation is consistent with the results of clinical studies suggesting that memantine has not an antidepressant action but an antimanic and mood-stabilizing effect.</br

    the urgent need of new mood stabilizers the promising results of memantine

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    Giulia Serra1,2, Francesca Demontis3 and Gino Serra4* 1Clinical and Research fellow, Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, I.R.C.C.S. Children Hospital Bambino Gesu, Rome, Italy. 2NESMOS Department, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University, Rome Italy 3International Consortium for Bipolar Disorder Research, McLean Hospital, Belmont (MA), USA 4Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, University of Sassari, Ital

    Effective generation of closed-form soliton solutions of the continuous classical Heisenberg ferromagnet equation

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    The non-topological, stationary and propagating, soliton solutions of the classical continuous Heisenberg ferromagnet equation are investigated. A general, rigorous formulation of the Inverse Scattering Transform for this equation is presented, under less restrictive conditions than the Schwartz class hypotheses and naturally incorporating the non-topological character of the solutions. Such formulation is based on a new triangular representation for the Jost solutions, which in turn allows an immediate computation of the asymptotic behaviour of the scattering data for large values of the spectral parameter, consistently improving on the existing theory. A new, general, explicit multi-soliton solution formula, amenable to computer algebra, is obtained by means of the matrix triplet method, producing all the soliton solutions (including breather-like and multipoles), and allowing their classification and descriptio

    LTalpha and LTbeta gene expression in organs of sheep showing different lymphoproliferative changes induced by maedi-visna virus

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    In lung and mammary gland of sheep, Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) causes lymphoproliferative inflammation often with follicular structures (lymphofollicular inflammation). The aim of this work was to define whether Limphotoxin α and β (LTα, LTβ) play a role in the formation of these peculiar lesions in sheep experimentally infected with MVV

    Occurrence and traceability of Salmonella spp. in five Sardinian fermented sausage facilities

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    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of Salmonella in five fermented sausage processing plants and their products during the production process, and to trace the possible sources of contamination. A total of 270 samples were collected: mixture of ground pork meat and fat, products at the end of acidification, sausages at the end of ripening and, during production stages, surfaces in contact with meat and surfaces not in contact with meat. For samples of ground meat, product at the end of acidification and sausages at the end of ripening, the pH and water activity (aw), were determined. All the samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella. Thirtytwo Salmonella isolates were obtained, subjected to serotyping and PFGE. The sausages at the end of ripening pH and aw mean values were 5.39±0.24 and 0.91±0.03, respectively. Salmonella was detected in three processing plants with an overall prevalence of 16.7% in food samples and 5.8% in environmental samples. Salmonella prevalence was 24% in ground meat and products at the end of acidification and was also detected in a sample of sausage at the end of ripening (2%). In environmental samples, Salmonella was detected in 6.6% of surfaces in contact with meat and 5% of surfaces not in contact with meat. Five serotypes were identified among 32 isolates: S. Derby (37.5%), S. Typhimurium and S. Rissen (both 25%), S. Give and monophasic S. Typhimurium (both 6.25%). Six different pulsotypes were obtained with PFGE. The serotypes and the PFGE pattern of the strains were specific for each facility with no overlapping between different processing plants. The same observation can be pointed out considering different sampling days for the same processing plants, thus presumably indicating the raw material (ground pork meat and fat) as the source of contamination. The detection of Salmonella in a sample of sausage at the end of ripening highlights the ability of the pathogen to survive during manufacturing process

    Roadmap on thermoelectricity

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    The increasing energy demand and the ever more pressing need for clean technologies of energy conversion pose one of the most urgent and complicated issues of our age. Thermoelectricity, namely the direct conversion of waste heat into electricity, is a promising technique based on a long-standing physical phenomenon, which still has not fully developed its potential, mainly due to the low efficiency of the process. In order to improve the thermoelectric performance, a huge effort is being made by physicists, materials scientists and engineers, with the primary aims of better understanding the fundamental issues ruling the improvement of the thermoelectric figure of merit, and finally building the most efficient thermoelectric devices. In this Roadmap an overview is given about the most recent experimental and computational results obtained within the Italian research community on the optimization of composition and morphology of some thermoelectric materials, as well as on the design of thermoelectric and hybrid thermoelectric/photovoltaic devices

    Progettazione dei processi di ETL per l'integrazione dei dati

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    Si presenta l’evoluzione storica dei processi di integrazione dei dati tra i sistemi transazionali. Si descrive dettagliatamente uno strumento di ETL: Informatica PowerCenter. Si analizzano i processi di ETL realizzati per integrare i software del CRM, i software di gestione della produzione e della distribuzione con il sistema informativo gestionale SAP R/3