2,459 research outputs found

    Anti-Spoofing for Text-Independent Speaker Verification: An Initial Database, Comparison of Countermeasures, and Human Performance

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    Due to copyright restrictions, the access to the full text of this article is only available via subscription.In this paper, we present a systematic study of the vulnerability of automatic speaker verification to a diverse range of spoofing attacks. We start with a thorough analysis of the spoofing effects of five speech synthesis and eight voice conversion systems, and the vulnerability of three speaker verification systems under those attacks. We then introduce a number of countermeasures to prevent spoofing attacks from both known and unknown attackers. Known attackers are spoofing systems whose output was used to train the countermeasures, while an unknown attacker is a spoofing system whose output was not available to the countermeasures during training. Finally, we benchmark automatic systems against human performance on both speaker verification and spoofing detection tasks.EPSRC ; TÜBİTA

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum