1,753 research outputs found

    Design and test of the Digital Opto Hybrid Module for the CMS Tracker Inner Barrel and Disks.

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    One of the most important tasks to be performed in the CMS Tracker detector is the communication between hundreds of silicon modules and the central Control System under the supervision of the Data Acquisition System. To manage such complexity, modules are grouped in a hierarchical structure. Each group is controlled by a Communication and Control Unit (CCU). Several CCU form a ring with a Front End Controller as master. The entire Tracker Inner Barrel and Disks detector contains roughly 100 such rings called Control Rings. A description is given here of the implemented ring architecture for the detector and of the solutions found to provide a reliable and easy way to interconnect these groups

    Results on Proton-Irradiated 3D Pixel Sensors Interconnected to RD53A Readout ASIC

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    Test beam results obtained with 3D pixel sensors bump-bonded to the RD53A prototype readout ASIC are reported. Sensors from FBK (Italy) and IMB-CNM (Spain) have been tested before and after proton-irradiation to an equivalent fluence of about 11 ×\times 101610^{16} neq\text{n}_{\text{eq}} cm−2^{-2} (1 MeV equivalent neutrons). This is the first time that one single collecting electrode fine pitch 3D sensors are irradiated up to such fluence bump-bonded to a fine pitch ASIC. The preliminary analysis of the collected data shows no degradation on the hit detection efficiencies of the tested sensors after high energy proton irradiation, demonstrating the excellent radiation tolerance of the 3D pixel sensors. Thus, they will be excellent candidates for the extreme radiation environment at the innermost layers of the HL-LHC experiments.Comment: Conference Proceedings of VCI2019, 15th Vienna Conference of Instrumentation, February 18-22, 2019, Vienna, Austria. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1903.0196

    Bonding of the Inner Tracker Silicon Microstrip Modules

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    Microbonding of the CMS Tracker Inner Barrel (TIB) and Tracker Inner Disks (TID) modules was shared among six different Italian Institutes. The organization devised and the infrastructure deployed to handle this task is illustrated. Microbonding specifications and procedures for the different types of TIB and TID modules are given. The tooling specially designed and developed for these types of modules is described. Experience of production is presented. Attained production rates are given. An analysis of the microbonding quality achieved is presented, based on bond strengths measured in sample bond pull tests as well as on rates of bonding failures. Italian Bonding Centers routinely performed well above minimum specifications and a very low global introduced failure rate, at the strip level, of only ∌\sim0.015 \% is observed

    De-growth and critical community psychology: Contributions towards individual and social well-being

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    This contribution sets out to combine the perspective of the degrowth paradigm with that of Critical Community psychology. Following the degrowth argument, the advancement of human well-being calls for a shift from growth-based societies to ones grounded in the ethos of degrowth. In this regard, we acknowledge the necessity for both theoretical principles and examples of good practice, which can lead to this transition. To this end, the article combines some of the underlying principles of the degrowth paradigm (i.e. decolonisation of the imaginary, reciprocity and conviviality, and environmental sustainability) with those of Critical Community Psychology, as well as, in one case, of Liberation Psychology (i.e. conscientisation and de-ideologisation, responsible togetherness, and environmental justice). This integration intends to equip academic scholars, practitioners, and social activists with visions and practices for the implementation of strategic actions aimed at individual and social well-being. The article concludes with a thorough reflection on social justice and how to better promote it through the combined contributions of both degrowth and Critical Community psychology

    First Measurements of a Prototype of a New Generation Pixel Readout ASIC in 65 nm CMOS for Extreme Rate HEP Detectors at HL-LHC

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    A first prototype of a readout ASIC in CMOS 65nm for a pixel detector at High Luminosity LHC is described. The pixel cell area is 50x50 um2 and the matrix consists of 64x64 pixels. The chip was designed to guarantee high efficiency at extreme data rates for very low signals and with low power consumption. Two different analogue front-end designs, one synchronous and one asynchronous, were implemented, both occupying an area of 35x35 um2. ENC value is below 100e- for an input capacitance of 50 fF and in-time threshold below 1000e-. Leakage current compensation up to 50 nA with power consumption below 5 uW. A ToT technique is used to perform charge digitization with 5-bit precision using either a 40 MHz clock or a local Fast Oscillator up to 800 MHz. Internal 10-bit DAC's are used for biasing, while monitoring is provided by a 12-bit ADC. A novel digital architecture has been developed to ensure above 99.5% hit efficiency at pixel hit rates up to 3 GHz/cm2, trigger rates up to 1 MHz and trigger latency of 12.5 us. The total power consumption per pixel is below 5uW. Analogue dead-time is below 1%. Data are sent via a serializer connected to a CMOS-to-SLVS transmitter working at 320 MHz. All IP-blocks and front-ends used are silicon-proven and tested after exposure to ionizing radiation levels of 500-800 Mrad. The chip was designed as part of the Italian INFN CHIPIX65 project and in close synergy with the international CERN RD53 and was submitted in July 2016 for production. Early test results for both front-ends regarding minimum threshold, auto-zeroing and low-noise performance are high encouraging and will be presented in this paper

    withdrawn 2017 hrs ehra ecas aphrs solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation

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    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton–proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript −1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an