569 research outputs found

### Coreness of Cooperative Games with Truncated Submodular Profit Functions

Coreness represents solution concepts related to core in cooperative games,
which captures the stability of players. Motivated by the scale effect in
social networks, economics and other scenario, we study the coreness of
cooperative game with truncated submodular profit functions. Specifically, the
profit function $f(\cdot)$ is defined by a truncation of a submodular function
$\sigma(\cdot)$: $f(\cdot)=\sigma(\cdot)$ if $\sigma(\cdot)\geq\eta$ and
$f(\cdot)=0$ otherwise, where $\eta$ is a given threshold. In this paper, we
study the core and three core-related concepts of truncated submodular profit
cooperative game. We first prove that whether core is empty can be decided in
polynomial time and an allocation in core also can be found in polynomial time
when core is not empty. When core is empty, we show hardness results and
approximation algorithms for computing other core-related concepts including
relative least-core value, absolute least-core value and least average
dissatisfaction value

### Budget feasible mechanisms on matroids

Motivated by many practical applications, in this paper we study budget feasible mechanisms where the goal is to procure independent sets from matroids. More specifically, we are given a matroid =(,) where each ground (indivisible) element is a selfish agent. The cost of each element (i.e., for selling the item or performing a service) is only known to the element itself. There is a buyer with a budget having additive valuations over the set of elements E. The goal is to design an incentive compatible (truthful) budget feasible mechanism which procures an independent set of the matroid under the given budget that yields the largest value possible to the buyer. Our result is a deterministic, polynomial-time, individually rational, truthful and budget feasible mechanism with 4-approximation to the optimal independent set. Then, we extend our mechanism to the setting of matroid intersections in which the goal is to procure common independent sets from multiple matroids. We show that, given a polynomial time deterministic blackbox that returns -approximation solutions to the matroid intersection problem, there exists a deterministic, polynomial time, individually rational, truthful and budget feasible mechanism with (3+1) -approximation to the optimal common independent set

### Group Strategyproof Pareto-Stable Marriage with Indifferences via the Generalized Assignment Game

We study the variant of the stable marriage problem in which the preferences
of the agents are allowed to include indifferences. We present a mechanism for
producing Pareto-stable matchings in stable marriage markets with indifferences
that is group strategyproof for one side of the market. Our key technique
involves modeling the stable marriage market as a generalized assignment game.
We also show that our mechanism can be implemented efficiently. These results
can be extended to the college admissions problem with indifferences

### Matching structure and bargaining outcomes in buyer–seller networks

We examine the relationship between the matching structure of a bipartite (buyer-seller) network and the (expected) shares of the unit surplus that each connected pair in this network can create. We show that in different bargaining environments, these shares are closely related to the Gallai-Edmonds Structure Theorem. This theorem characterizes the structure of maximum matchings in an undirected graph. We show that the relationship between the (expected) shares and the tructure Theorem is not an artefact of a particular bargaining mechanism or trade centralization. However, this relationship does not necessarily generalize to non-bipartite networks or to networks with heterogeneous link values

### Biorthogonal quantum mechanics

The Hermiticity condition in quantum mechanics required for the characterization of (a) physical observables and (b) generators of unitary motions can be relaxed into a wider class of operators whose eigenvalues are real and whose eigenstates are complete. In this case, the orthogonality of eigenstates is replaced by the notion of biorthogonality that defines the relation between the Hilbert space of states and its dual space. The resulting quantum theory, which might appropriately be called 'biorthogonal quantum mechanics', is developed here in some detail in the case for which the Hilbert-space dimensionality is finite. Specifically, characterizations of probability assignment rules, observable properties, pure and mixed states, spin particles, measurements, combined systems and entanglements, perturbations, and dynamical aspects of the theory are developed. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on infinite-dimensional systems. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd

### Quantum catastrophes: a case study

The bound-state spectrum of a Hamiltonian H is assumed real in a non-empty
domain D of physical values of parameters. This means that for these
parameters, H may be called crypto-Hermitian, i.e., made Hermitian via an {\it
ad hoc} choice of the inner product in the physical Hilbert space of quantum
bound states (i.e., via an {\it ad hoc} construction of the so called metric).
The name of quantum catastrophe is then assigned to the
N-tuple-exceptional-point crossing, i.e., to the scenario in which we leave
domain D along such a path that at the boundary of D, an N-plet of bound state
energies degenerates and, subsequently, complexifies. At any fixed $N \geq 2$,
this process is simulated via an N by N benchmark effective matrix Hamiltonian
H. Finally, it is being assigned such a closed-form metric which is made unique
via an N-extrapolation-friendliness requirement.Comment: 23 p

### Modeling of dendrite growth from undercooled nickel melt: sharp interface model versus enthalpy method

The dendritic growth of pure materials in undercooled melts is critical to understanding the fundamentals of solidification. This work investigates two new insights, the first is an advanced definition for the two-dimensional stability criterion of dendritic growth and the second is the viability of the enthalpy method as a numerical model. In both cases, the aim is to accurately predict dendritic growth behavior over a wide range of undercooling. An adaptive cell size method is introduced into the enthalpy method to mitigate against `narrow-band features' that can introduce significant error. By using this technique an excellent agreement is found between the enthalpy method and the analytic theory for solidification of pure nickel

### A stable dendritic growth with forced convection: A test of theory using enthalpy-based modeling methods

The theory of stable dendritic growth within a forced convective flow field is tested against the enthalpy method for a single-component nickel melt. The growth rate of dendritic tips and their tip diameter are plotted as functions of the melt undercooling using the theoretical model (stability criterion and undercooling balance condition) and computer simulations. The theory and computations are in good agreement for a broad range of fluid velocities. In addition, the dendrite tip diameter decreases, and its tip velocity increases with increasing fluid velocity

- …