74 research outputs found

    Interventional Ultrasound in Dermatology: A Pictorial Overview Focusing on Cutaneous Melanoma Patients

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    Cutaneous melanoma incidence is increasing worldwide, representing an aggressive tumor when evolving to the metastatic phase. High-resolution ultrasound (US) is playing a growing role in the assessment of newly diagnosed melanoma cases, in the locoregional staging prior to the sentinel lymph-node biopsy procedure, and in the melanoma patient follow-up. Additionally, US may guide a number of percutaneous procedures in the melanoma patients, encompassing diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. These include fine needle cytology, core biopsy, placement of presurgical guidewires, aspiration of lymphoceles and seromas, and electrochemotherapy

    Early detection of pleuro-pulmonary tuberculosis by bedside lung ultrasound: A case report and review of literature

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    We present a case in which lung ultrasound (LUS) was relevant to reach an early diagnosis of lung tuberculosis and to manage the patient in the right setting. Moreover, ultrasound allowed to detect and treat massive pleural effusion through an ultrasound-guided thoracentesis

    Conspicuity and muscle-invasiveness assessment for bladder cancer using VI-RADS: a multi-reader, contrast-free MRI study to determine optimal b-values for diffusion-weighted imaging

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    To (1) compare bladder cancer (BC) muscle invasiveness among three b-values using a contrast-free approach based on Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS), to (2) determine if muscle-invasiveness assessment is affected by the reader experience, and to (3) compare BC conspicuity among three b-values, qualitatively and quantitatively

    Prognostic value of deep learning-mediated treatment monitoring in lung cancer patients receiving immunotherapy

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    BackgroundCheckpoint inhibitors provided sustained clinical benefit to metastatic lung cancer patients. Nonetheless, prognostic markers in metastatic settings are still under research. Imaging offers distinctive advantages, providing whole-body information non-invasively, while routinely available in most clinics. We hypothesized that more prognostic information can be extracted by employing artificial intelligence (AI) for treatment monitoring, superior to 2D tumor growth criteria.MethodsA cohort of 152 stage-IV non-small-cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC) (73 discovery, 79 test, 903CTs), who received nivolumab were retrospectively collected. We trained a neural network to identify morphological changes on chest CT acquired during patients' follow-ups. A classifier was employed to link imaging features learned by the network with overall survival.ResultsOur results showed significant performance in the independent test set to predict 1-year overall survival from the date of image acquisition, with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.69 (p < 0.01), up to AUC 0.75 (p < 0.01) in the first 3 to 5 months of treatment, and 0.67 AUC (p = 0.01) for durable clinical benefit (6 months progression-free survival). We found the AI-derived survival score to be independent of clinical, radiological, PDL1, and histopathological factors. Visual analysis of AI-generated prognostic heatmaps revealed relative prognostic importance of morphological nodal changes in the mediastinum, supraclavicular, and hilar regions, lung and bone metastases, as well as pleural effusions, atelectasis, and consolidations.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate that deep learning can quantify tumor- and non-tumor-related morphological changes important for prognostication on serial imaging. Further investigation should focus on the implementation of this technique beyond thoracic imaging.Pathogenesis and treatment of chronic pulmonary disease

    Macrostructural Alterations of Subcortical Grey Matter in Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction

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    Psychogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) has been defined as the persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit sexual performance. It shows a high incidence and prevalence among men, with a significant impact on the quality of life. Few neuroimaging studies have investigated the cerebral basis of erectile dysfunctions observing the role played by prefrontal, cingulate, and parietal cortices during erotic stimulation. In spite of the well-known involvement of subcortical regions such as hypothalamus and caudate nucleus in male sexual response, and the key role of nucleus accumbens in pleasure and reward, poor attention was paid to their role in male sexual dysfunction. In this study, we determined the presence of grey matter (GM) atrophy patterns in subcortical structures such as amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum, thalamus, and hypothalamus in patients with psychogenic ED and healthy men. After Rigiscan evaluation, urological, general medical, metabolic and hormonal, psychological and psychiatric assessment, 17 outpatients with psychogenic ED and 25 healthy controls were recruited for structural MRI session. Significant GM atrophy of nucleus accumbens was observed bilaterally in patients with respect to controls. Shape analysis showed that this atrophy was located in the left medial-anterior and posterior portion of accumbens. Left nucleus accumbens volumes in patients correlated with low erectile functioning as measured by IIEF-5 (International Index of Erectile Function). In addition, a GM atrophy of left hypothalamus was also observed. Our results suggest that atrophy of nucleus accumbens plays an important role in psychogenic erectile dysfunction. We believe that this change can influence the motivation-related component of sexual behavior. Our findings help to elucidate a neural basis of psychogenic erectile dysfunction

    Long echo time STIR sequence MRI of optic nerves in optic neuritis

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    MR Angiography, MR Imaging and Proton MR Spectroscopy In-Vivo Assessment of Skeletal Muscle Ischemia in Diabetic Rats

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    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic resonance (MR) techniques for in-vivo assessing a rat diabetic model of limb ischemia. Unilateral hind limb ischemia was induced by ligation of the iliac-femoral artery in male streptozotocin-treated and non-diabetic control rats. Four weeks after ligation, rats underwent MR Angiography (MRA), T1-weighted and Short Time Inversion Recovery (STIR) sequences and muscle Proton MR Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) on both hind limbs. After MR examinations, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis were performed. MRA showed a signal void due to flow discontinuation distal to the artery ligation. T1-weighted and STIR images showed, respectively, the presence of tissue swelling (p = 0.018 for non-diabetic; p = 0.027 for diabetic rats) and signal hyperintensity in tissue affected by occlusion. Mean total creatine/water for the occluded limb was significantly lower than for the non-occluded limbs in both non-diabetic (5.46√ó10‚ąí4 vs 1.14√ó10‚ąí3, p = 0.028) and diabetic rats (1.37√ó10‚ąí4 vs 1.10√ó10‚ąí3; p = 0.018). MR Imaging and 1H-MRS changes were more pronounced in diabetic than in non-diabetic occluded limbs (p = 0.032). MR findings were confirmed by using histological findings. Combined MR techniques can be used to demonstrate the presence of structural and metabolic changes produced by iliac-femoral artery occlusion in rat diabetic model of limb ischemia
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