5,357 research outputs found

    Problems associated with operations and measurement in cryogenic wind tunnels

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    Cryogenic wind tunnel T'3 under continuous blower operation has been the object of improvements and the installation of auxiliary equipment, dealing in particular with the enlargement of the liquid nitrogen injection reservoir and the hook-up to a fast data acquisition system. Following a brief description of the installation and its functioning, we present the main experimental techniques and the instrumentation used in the cryogenic environment

    Denaturation transition of stretched DNA

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    We generalize the Poland-Scheraga model to consider DNA denaturation in the presence of an external stretching force. We demonstrate the existence of a force-induced DNA denaturation transition and obtain the temperature-force phase diagram. The transition is determined by the loop exponent cc for which we find the new value c=4őĹ‚ąí1/2c=4\nu-1/2 such that the transition is second order with c=1.85<2c=1.85<2 in d=3d=3. We show that a finite stretching force FF destabilizes DNA, corresponding to a lower melting temperature T(F)T(F), in agreement with single-molecule DNA stretching experiments.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Bubbles, clusters and denaturation in genomic DNA: modeling, parametrization, efficient computation

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    The paper uses mesoscopic, non-linear lattice dynamics based (Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois, PBD) modeling to describe thermal properties of DNA below and near the denaturation temperature. Computationally efficient notation is introduced for the relevant statistical mechanics. Computed melting profiles of long and short heterogeneous sequences are presented, using a recently introduced reparametrization of the PBD model, and critically discussed. The statistics of extended open bubbles and bound clusters is formulated and results are presented for selected examples.Comment: to appear in a special issue of the Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics (ed. G. Gaeta

    Acceleration and transport of ions in turbulent current sheets: formation of non-maxwelian energy distribution

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    The paper is devoted to particle acceleration in turbulent current sheet (CS). Our results show that the mechanism of CS particle interaction with electromagnetic turbulence can explain the formation of power law energy distributions. We study the ratio between adiabatic acceleration of particles in electric field in the presence of stationary turbulence and acceleration due to electric field in the case of dynamic turbulence. The correlation between average energy gained by particles and average particle residence time in the vicinity of the neutral sheet is discussed. It is also demonstrated that particle velocity distributions formed by particle-turbulence interaction are similar in essence to the ones observed near the far reconnection region in the Earth's magnetotail

    Characterization of Metal Aggregates by Scanning Microscopy: Particle Sizes and Space Distribution in Intermetallic Particles

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    Various metal aggregates prepared using ionizing radiation were studied by microscopy techniques. A metal deposit onto a carbon felt obtained from solutions containing Pt and Ru was shown to consist of nanometric particles containing both metals. Another study deals with a subnanometric silver aggregate. The nuclearity of the aggregate was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Additional information from pulse radiolysis experiments allowed the determination of the Ag73+ stoichiometry. The third material consisted of Ag/Pd submicron powders (70/30 or 75/25% w/w) used in electronics, and made of spherical bimetallic grains; X-ray diffraction showed segregation. The spatial distribution of each metal was obtained by combining space-resolved X-ray microanalysis in the transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Each grain was shown to be core/rind structured (core: pure Ag; rind: 10-15 nm thick 11% Ag/89% Pd w/w alloy)

    Global Response to Local Ionospheric Mass Ejection

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    We revisit a reported "Ionospheric Mass Ejection" using prior event observations to guide a global simulation of local ionospheric outflows, global magnetospheric circulation, and plasma sheet pressurization, and comparing our results with the observed global response. Our simulation framework is based on test particle motions in the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global circulation model electromagnetic fields. The inner magnetosphere is simulated with the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) of Fok and Wolf, driven by the transpolar potential developed by the LFM magnetosphere, and includes an embedded plasmaspheric simulation. Global circulation is stimulated using the observed solar wind conditions for the period 24-25 Sept 1998. This period begins with the arrival of a Coronal Mass Ejection, initially with northward, but later with southward interplanetary magnetic field. Test particles are launched from the ionosphere with fluxes specified by local empirical relationships of outflow to electrodynamic and particle precipitation imposed by the MIlD simulation. Particles are tracked until they are lost from the system downstream or into the atmosphere, using the full equations of motion. Results are compared with the observed ring current and a simulation of polar and auroral wind outflows driven globally by solar wind dynamic pressure. We find good quantitative agreement with the observed ring current, and reasonable qualitative agreement with earlier simulation results, suggesting that the solar wind driven global simulation generates realistic energy dissipation in the ionosphere and that the Strangeway relations provide a realistic local outflow description

    New Constraints on Dispersive Form Factor Parameterizations from the Timelike Region

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    We generalize a recent model-independent form factor parameterization derived from rigorous dispersion relations to include constraints from data in the timelike region. These constraints dictate the convergence properties of the parameterization and appear as sum rules on the parameters. We further develop a new parameterization that takes into account finiteness and asymptotic conditions on the form factor, and use it to fit to the elastic \pi electromagnetic form factor. We find that the existing world sample of timelike data gives only loose bounds on the form factor in the spacelike region, but explain how the acquisition of additional timelike data or fits to other form factors are expected to give much better results. The same parameterization is seen to fit spacelike data extremely well.Comment: 24 pages, latex (revtex), 3 eps figure
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