58 research outputs found

    Clinical characteristics and molecular aspects of low-grade serous ovarian and peritoneal cancer: a multicenter, observational, retrospective analysis of MITO Group (MITO 22)

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    BACKGROUND: Low-grade serous ovarian and peritoneal cancer (LGSC) is a rare disease and few data on the clinical and genomic landscape have been published.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with LGSC between 1996 and 2019 was conducted in MITO centers. Objective Response Rate (ORR) to treatments, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Additionally, the tumor molecular profile of 56 patients was evaluated using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) FoundationOne CDX (Foundation Medicine (R)).RESULTS: A total of 128 patients with complete clinical data and pathologically confirmed diagnosis of LGSC were identified. ORR to first and subsequent therapies were 23.7% and 33.7%, respectively. PFS was 43.9 months (95% CI:32.4-53.1) and OS was 105.4 months (95% CI: 82.7-not reached). The most common gene alterations were: KRAS (n = 12, 21%), CDKN2A/B (n = 11, 20%), NRAS (n = 8, 14%), FANCA (n = 8, 14%), NF1 (n = 7, 13%) and BRAF (n = 6, 11%). Unexpectedly, pathogenetic BRCA1 (n = 2, 4%), BRCA2 (n = 1, 2%) and PALB2 (n = 1, 2%) mutations were found.CONCLUSIONS: MITO 22 suggests that LGSC is an heterogenous disease for both its clinical behavior in response to standard therapies and its molecular alterations. Future prospective studies should test treatments according to biological and molecular tumor's characteristics

    MicroRNA-199b-5p Impairs Cancer Stem Cells through Negative Regulation of HES1 in Medulloblastoma

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    BACKGROUND: Through negative regulation of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) can function in cancers as oncosuppressors, and they can show altered expression in various tumor types. Here we have investigated medulloblastoma tumors (MBs), which arise from an early impairment of developmental processes in the cerebellum, where Notch signaling is involved in many cell-fate-determining stages. MBs occur bimodally, with the peak incidence seen between 3-4 years and 8-9 years of age, although it can also occur in adults. Notch regulates a subset of the MB cells that have stem-cell-like properties and can promote tumor growth. On the basis of this evidence, we hypothesized that miRNAs targeting the Notch pathway can regulated these phenomena, and can be used in anti-cancer therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a screening of MB cell lines, the miRNA miR-199b-5p was seen to be a regulator of the Notch pathway through its targeting of the transcription factor HES1. Down-regulation of HES1 expression by miR-199b-5p negatively regulates the proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth of MB cells. MiR-199b-5p over-expression blocks expression of several cancer stem-cell genes, impairs the engrafting potential of MB cells in the cerebellum of athymic/nude mice, and of particular interest, decreases the MB stem-cell-like (CD133+) subpopulation of cells. In our analysis of 61 patients with MB, the expression of miR-199b-5p in the non-metastatic cases was significantly higher than in the metastatic cases (P = 0.001). Correlation with survival for these patients with high levels of miR-199b expression showed a positive trend to better overall survival than for the low-expressing patients. These data showing the down-regulation of miR-199b-5p in metastatic MBs suggest a potential silencing mechanism through epigenetic or genetic alterations. Upon induction of de-methylation using 5-aza-deoxycytidine, lower miR-199b-5p expression was seen in a panel of MB cell lines, supported an epigenetic mechanism of regulation. Furthermore, two cell lines (Med8a and UW228) showed significant up-regulation of miR-199b-5p upon treatment. Infection with MB cells in an induced xenograft model in the mouse cerebellum and the use of an adenovirus carrying miR-199b-5p indicate a clinical benefit through this negative influence of miR-199b-5p on tumor growth and on the subset of MB stem-cell-like cells, providing further proof of concept. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of MB, one-third of these patients remain incurable and current treatments can significantly damage long-term survivors. Here we show that miR-199b-5p expression correlates with metastasis spread, identifying a new molecular marker for a poor-risk class in patients with MB. We further show that in a xenograft model, MB tumor burden can be reduced, indicating the use of miR199b-5p as an adjuvant therapy after surgery, in combination with radiation and chemotherapy, for the improvement of anti-cancer MB therapies and patient quality of life. To date, this is the first report that expression of a miRNA can deplete the tumor stem cells, indicating an interesting therapeutic approach for the targeting of these cells in brain tumors

    Beta-Blocker Use in Older Hospitalized Patients Affected by Heart Failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Italian Survey From the REPOSI Register

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    Beta (β)-blockers (BB) are useful in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) and concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, the use of BBs could induce bronchoconstriction due to β2-blockade. For this reason, both the ESC and GOLD guidelines strongly suggest the use of selective β1-BB in patients with HF and COPD. However, low adherence to guidelines was observed in multiple clinical settings. The aim of the study was to investigate the BBs use in older patients affected by HF and COPD, recorded in the REPOSI register. Of 942 patients affected by HF, 47.1% were treated with BBs. The use of BBs was significantly lower in patients with HF and COPD than in patients affected by HF alone, both at admission and at discharge (admission, 36.9% vs. 51.3%; discharge, 38.0% vs. 51.7%). In addition, no further BB users were found at discharge. The probability to being treated with a BB was significantly lower in patients with HF also affected by COPD (adj. OR, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.37-0.67), while the diagnosis of COPD was not associated with the choice of selective β1-BB (adj. OR, 95% CI: 1.33, 0.76-2.34). Despite clear recommendations by clinical guidelines, a significant underuse of BBs was also observed after hospital discharge. In COPD affected patients, physicians unreasonably reject BBs use, rather than choosing a β1-BB. The expected improvement of the BB prescriptions after hospitalization was not observed. A multidisciplinary approach among hospital physicians, general practitioners, and pharmacologists should be carried out for better drug management and adherence to guideline recommendations

    Clinical features and outcomes of elderly hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure or both

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    Background and objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) mutually increase the risk of being present in the same patient, especially if older. Whether or not this coexistence may be associated with a worse prognosis is debated. Therefore, employing data derived from the REPOSI register, we evaluated the clinical features and outcomes in a population of elderly patients admitted to internal medicine wards and having COPD, HF or COPD + HF. Methods: We measured socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics, severity and prevalence of comorbidities, clinical and laboratory features during hospitalization, mood disorders, functional independence, drug prescriptions and discharge destination. The primary study outcome was the risk of death. Results: We considered 2,343 elderly hospitalized patients (median age 81 years), of whom 1,154 (49%) had COPD, 813 (35%) HF, and 376 (16%) COPD + HF. Patients with COPD + HF had different characteristics than those with COPD or HF, such as a higher prevalence of previous hospitalizations, comorbidities (especially chronic kidney disease), higher respiratory rate at admission and number of prescribed drugs. Patients with COPD + HF (hazard ratio HR 1.74, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.16-2.61) and patients with dementia (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.06-2.90) had a higher risk of death at one year. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a higher mortality risk in the group of patients with COPD + HF for all causes (p = 0.010), respiratory causes (p = 0.006), cardiovascular causes (p = 0.046) and respiratory plus cardiovascular causes (p = 0.009). Conclusion: In this real-life cohort of hospitalized elderly patients, the coexistence of COPD and HF significantly worsened prognosis at one year. This finding may help to better define the care needs of this population

    The “Diabetes Comorbidome”: A Different Way for Health Professionals to Approach the Comorbidity Burden of Diabetes

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    (1) Background: The disease burden related to diabetes is increasing greatly, particularly in older subjects. A more comprehensive approach towards the assessment and management of diabetes’ comorbidities is necessary. The aim of this study was to implement our previous data identifying and representing the prevalence of the comorbidities, their association with mortality, and the strength of their relationship in hospitalized elderly patients with diabetes, developing, at the same time, a new graphic representation model of the comorbidome called “Diabetes Comorbidome”. (2) Methods: Data were collected from the RePoSi register. Comorbidities, socio-demographic data, severity and comorbidity indexes (Cumulative Illness rating Scale CIRS-SI and CIRS-CI), and functional status (Barthel Index), were recorded. Mortality rates were assessed in hospital and 3 and 12 months after discharge. (3) Results: Of the 4714 hospitalized elderly patients, 1378 had diabetes. The comorbidities distribution showed that arterial hypertension (57.1%), ischemic heart disease (31.4%), chronic renal failure (28.8%), atrial fibrillation (25.6%), and COPD (22.7%), were the more frequent in subjects with diabetes. The graphic comorbidome showed that the strongest predictors of death at in hospital and at the 3-month follow-up were dementia and cancer. At the 1-year follow-up, cancer was the first comorbidity independently associated with mortality. (4) Conclusions: The “Diabetes Comorbidome” represents the perfect instrument for determining the prevalence of comorbidities and the strength of their relationship with risk of death, as well as the need for an effective treatment for improving clinical outcomes

    Antidiabetic Drug Prescription Pattern in Hospitalized Older Patients with Diabetes

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    Objective: To describe the prescription pattern of antidiabetic and cardiovascular drugs in a cohort of hospitalized older patients with diabetes. Methods: Patients with diabetes aged 65 years or older hospitalized in internal medicine and/or geriatric wards throughout Italy and enrolled in the REPOSI (REgistro POliterapuie SIMI—Società Italiana di Medicina Interna) registry from 2010 to 2019 and discharged alive were included. Results: Among 1703 patients with diabetes, 1433 (84.2%) were on treatment with at least one antidiabetic drug at hospital admission, mainly prescribed as monotherapy with insulin (28.3%) or metformin (19.2%). The proportion of treated patients decreased at discharge (N = 1309, 76.9%), with a significant reduction over time. Among those prescribed, the proportion of those with insulin alone increased over time (p = 0.0066), while the proportion of those prescribed sulfonylureas decreased (p < 0.0001). Among patients receiving antidiabetic therapy at discharge, 1063 (81.2%) were also prescribed cardiovascular drugs, mainly with an antihypertensive drug alone or in combination (N = 777, 73.1%). Conclusion: The management of older patients with diabetes in a hospital setting is often sub-optimal, as shown by the increasing trend in insulin at discharge, even if an overall improvement has been highlighted by the prevalent decrease in sulfonylureas prescription

    US-color Doppler early diagnosis of uterine rupture with protrusion of umbilical cord

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    to analyze a case of uterine rupture in a pregnant woman that had a previous laparoscopic myomectomy

    Uterine Rupture after Laparoscopic Myomectomy in Two Cases: Real Complication or Malpractice?

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    We describe two cases of uterine rupture in pregnancy after laparoscopic myomectomy and analyze all the aetiological factors involved in this circumstance according to the recent literature, focusing above all on the surgical procedures and the characteristics of the excised myomas. The two cases of uterine rupture in pregnancy following laparoscopic myomectomy occurred at 36 and 18 weeks of gestation, respectively. Both women had undergone laparoscopic multiple myomectomy and uterine rupture occurred along the isthmic myomectomy scars, despite the fact that compliance with all the recent technical surgical recommendations for the previous laparoscopic multiple myomectomy had been fully observed. In our cases we identified the isthmic localization, size of the excised myomas (≥4 cm), and individual characteristics of the healing process as possible risk factors for “a real complication.” Larger studies and robust case-control analyses are needed to draw reliable conclusions; special care should be paid when performing laparoscopic myomectomy in women planning a later pregnancy
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