311 research outputs found

    Small molecule inhibition of protein depalmitoylation as a new approach towards downregulation of oncogenic Ras signalling

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    AbstractThe H- and N-Ras GTPases are prominent examples of proteins, whose localizations and signalling capacities are regulated by reversible palmitoylations and depalmitoylations. Recently, the novel small molecule inhibitor palmostatin B has been described to inhibit Ras depalmitoylation and to revert the phenotype of oncogenic HRasG12V transformed cells. This demonstrates that palmostatin B is a tool to investigate the biochemical effects of the inhibition of cellular Ras depalmitoylation on Ras signalling, which is relevant for oncology. Furthermore, it is to be expected that many proteins, of which the signalling capacities depend on reversible palmitoylation, will be discovered in the near future. This stresses the urgent need for further development of small molecule inhibitors of palmitoylation and depalmitoylation in order to study their functions in cellular signalling

    Novel Design Strategies to Enhance the Efficiency of Proteolysis Targeting Chimeras

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    Despite the success of drug discovery over the past decades, many potential drug targets still remain intractable for small molecule modulation. The development of proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) that trigger degradation of the target proteins provides a conceptually novel approach to address drug targets that remained previously elusive. Currently, the main challenge of PROTAC development is the identification of efficient, tissue- and cell-selective PROTAC molecules with good drug-likeness and favorable safety profiles. This review focuses on strategies to enhance the effectiveness and selectivity of PROTACs. We provide a comprehensive summary of recently reported PROTAC design strategies and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Future perspectives for PROTAC design will also be discussed

    Histone acetyltransferases:challenges in targeting bi-substrate enzymes

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    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are epigenetic enzymes that install acetyl groups onto lysine residues of cellular proteins such as histones, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, and enzymes. HATs have been shown to play a role in diseases ranging from cancer and inflammatory diseases to neurological disorders, both through acetylations of histone proteins and non-histone proteins. Several HAT inhibitors, like bi-substrate inhibitors, natural product derivatives, small molecules, and protein-protein interaction inhibitors, have been developed. Despite their potential, a large gap remains between the biological activity of inhibitors in in vitro studies and their potential use as therapeutic agents. To bridge this gap, new potent HAT inhibitors with improved properties need to be developed. However, several challenges have been encountered in the investigation of HATs and HAT inhibitors that hinder the development of new HAT inhibitors. HATs have been shown to function in complexes consisting of many proteins. These complexes play a role in the activity and target specificity of HATs, which limits the translation of in vitro to in vivo experiments. The current HAT inhibitors suffer from undesired properties like anti-oxidant activity, reactivity, instability, low potency, or lack of selectivity between HAT subtypes and other enzymes. A characteristic feature of HATs is that they are bi-substrate enzymes that catalyze reactions between two substrates: the cofactor acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) and a lysine-containing substrate. This has important-but frequently overlooked-consequences for the determination of the inhibitory potency of small molecule HAT inhibitors and the reproducibility of enzyme inhibition experiments. We envision that a careful characterization of molecular aspects of HATs and HAT inhibitors, such as the HAT catalytic mechanism and the enzyme kinetics of small molecule HAT inhibitors, will greatly improve the development of potent and selective HAT inhibitors and provide validated starting points for further development towards therapeutic agents.</p

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC 3) as emerging drug target in NF-kappa B-mediated inflammation

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    Activation of inflammatory gene expression is regulated, among other factors, by post-translational modifications of histone proteins. The most investigated type of histone modifications is lysine acetylations. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetylations from lysines, thereby influencing (inflammatory) gene expression. Intriguingly, apart from histones, HDACs also target non-histone proteins. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) pathway is an important regulator in the expression of numerous inflammatory genes, and acetylation plays a crucial role in regulating its responses. Several studies have shed more light on the role of HDAC 1-3 in inflammation with a particular pro-inflammatory role for HDAC 3. Nevertheless, the HDAC-NF-kappa B interactions in inflammatory signalling have not been fully understood. An important challenge in targeting the regulatory role of HDACs in the NF-kappa B pathway is the development of highly potent small molecules that selectively target HDAC iso-enzymes. This review focuses on the role of HDAC 3 in (NF-kappa B-mediated) inflammation and NF-kappa B lysine acetylation. In addition, we address the application of frequently used small molecule HDAC inhibitors as an approach to attenuate inflammatory responses, and their potential as novel therapeutics. Finally, recent progress and future directions in medicinal chemistry efforts aimed at HDAC 3-selective inhibitors are discussed.</p

    Targeting HDAC Complexes in Asthma and COPD

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    Around three million patients die due to airway inflammatory diseases each year. The most notable of these diseases are asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, new therapies are urgently needed. Promising targets are histone deacetylases (HDACs), since they regulate posttranslational protein acetylation. Over a thousand proteins are reversibly acetylated, and acetylation critically influences aberrant intracellular signaling pathways in asthma and COPD. The diverse set of selective and non-selective HDAC inhibitors used in pre-clinical models of airway inflammation show promising results, but several challenges still need to be overcome. One such challenge is the design of HDAC inhibitors with unique selectivity profiles, such as selectivity towards specific HDAC complexes. Novel strategies to disrupt HDAC complexes should be developed to validate HDACs further as targets for new anti-inflammatory pulmonary treatments

    A novel histone acetyltransferase inhibitor A485 improves sensitivity of non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells to TRAIL

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    Transcriptional coactivators p300 and CBP catalyze the acetylation of lysine residues in histone proteins. Upregulation of p300 and CBP has been associated with lung, colorectal and hepatocellular cancer, indicating an important role of p300 and CBP in tumorigenesis. Recently, the novel p300 and CBP-selective inhibitor A485 became available, which was shown to inhibit proliferation of 124 different cancer cell lines. Here, we found that downregulation of EP300 or CREBBP enhances apoptosis upon TRAIL stimulation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. A485 upregulates pro- and anti-apoptotic genes at the mRNA level, implying an apoptosis-modulating effect in NSCLC cells. However, A485 alone does not induce apoptosis. Interestingly, we observed that the number of apoptotic cells increases upon combined treatment with A485 and TRAIL. Therefore, A485, as a TRAIL-sensitizer, was used in combination with TRAIL in wild type of NSCLC cell lines (HCC827 and H1650) and cells with acquired erlotinib resistance (HCC827-ER and H1650-ER). Our results show that the combination of A485 and TRAIL synergistically increases cell death and inhibits long-term cell proliferation. Furthermore, this combination inhibits the growth of 3D spheroids of EGFR-TKI-resistant cells. Taken together, we demonstrate a successful combination of A485 and TRAIL in EGFR-TKI-sensitive and resistant NSCLC cells

    Inflammation, Cancer and Oxidative Lipoxygenase Activity are Intimately Linked

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    Cancer and inflammation are intimately linked due to specific oxidative processes in the tumor microenvironment. Lipoxygenases are a versatile class of oxidative enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism. An increasing number of arachidonic acid metabolites is being discovered and apart from their classically recognized pro-inflammatory effects, anti-inflammatory effects are also being described in recent years. Interestingly, these lipid mediators are involved in activation of pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways such as the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, which illustrates the intimate link between lipid signaling and transcription factor activation. The identification of the role of arachidonic acid metabolites in several inflammatory diseases led to a significant drug discovery effort around arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes. However, to date success in this area has been limited. This might be attributed to the lack of selectivity of the developed inhibitors and to a lack of detailed understanding of the functional roles of arachidonic acid metabolites in inflammatory responses and cancer. This calls for a more detailed investigation of the activity of arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes and development of more selective inhibitors

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor family proteins are multitasking cytokines in tissue injury

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    The family of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) proteins in humans consist of MIF, its functional homolog D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT, also known as MIF-2) and the relatively unknown protein named DDT-like (DDTL). MIF is a pleiotropic cytokine with multiple properties in tissue homeostasis and pathology. MIF was initially found to associate with inflammatory responses and therefore established a reputation as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. However, increasing evidence demonstrates that MIF influences many different intra- and extracellular molecular processes important for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, such as promotion of cellular survival, antioxidant signaling, and wound repair. In contrast, studies on D-DT are scarce and on DDTL almost nonexistent and their functions remain to be further investigated as it is yet unclear how similar they are compared to MIF. Importantly, the many and sometimes opposing functions of MIF suggest that targeting MIF therapeutically should be considered carefully, taking into account timing and severity of tissue injury. In this review, we focus on the latest discoveries regarding the role of MIF family members in tissue injury, inflammation and repair, and highlight the possibilities of interventions with therapeutics targeting or mimicking MIF family proteins

    Photoactivation provides a mechanistic explanation for pan-assay interference behaviour of 2-aminopyrroles in lipoxygenase inhibition

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    Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (h-15-LOX-1) is a promising drug target in inflammation and cancer. In this study substitution-oriented screening (SOS) has been used to identify compounds with a 2-aminopyrrole scaffold as inhibitors for h-15-LOX-1. The observed structure activity relationships (SAR) proved to be relatively flat. IC50's for the most potent inhibitor of the series did not surpass 6.3 μM and the enzyme kinetics demonstrated uncompetitive inhibition. Based on this, we hypothesized that the investigated 2-aminopyrroles are pan assay interference compounds (PAINS) with photoactivation via a radical mechanism. Our results demonstrated clear photoactivation of h-15-LOX-1 inhibition under UV and visible light. In addition, the investigated 2-aminopyrroles decreased viability of cultured human hepatocarcinoma cells HCC-1.2 in a dose-dependent manner with LD50 ranging from 0.55 ± 0.15 μM (21B10) to 2.75 ± 0.91 μM (22). Taken together, this indicates that photoactivation can play an important role in the biological activity of compounds with a 2-amino-pyrrole scaffold as investigated here

    Structure-activity relationships for binding of 4-substituted triazole-phenols to macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)

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    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a versatile protein that plays a role in inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cancers. Development of novel inhibitors will enable further exploration of MIF as a drug target. In this study, we investigated structure-activity relationships of MIF inhibitors using a MIF tautomerase activity assay to measure binding. Importantly, we notified that transition metals such as copper (II) and zinc (II) interfere with the MIF tautomerase activity under the assay conditions applied. EDTA was added to the assay buffer to avoid interference of residual heavy metals with tautomerase activity measurements. Using these assay conditions the structure-activity relationships for MIF binding of a series of triazole-phenols was explored. The most potent inhibitors in this series provided activities in the low micromolar range. Enzyme kinetic analysis indicates competitive binding that proved reversible. Binding to the enzyme was confirmed using a microscale thermophoresis (MST) assay. Molecular modelling was used to rationalize the observed structure-activity relationships. The most potent inhibitor 2d inhibited proliferation of A549 cells in a clonogenic assay. In addition, 2d attenuated MIF induced ERK phosphorylation in A549 cells. Altogether, this study provides insights in the structure-activity relationships for MIF binding of triazole-phenols and further validates this class of compounds as MIF binding agents in cell-based studies
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