736 research outputs found

    Impact of vaping and smoking on maximum respiratory pressures and respiratory function

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    The effects of electronic-cigarette use (vaping), marketed as a healthier alternative to cigarette smoking (CS), on lung function remain equivocal. Therefore, this study assessed and compared the effects of vaping and CS on maximum respiratory pressures (MRP), respiratory function and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. Forty-four young healthy participants were recruited: vapers (n = 12), cigarette smokers (n = 14), and people who had never vaped nor smoked (control) group (n = 18). Spirometry, MRP and carboxyhaemoglobin levels were measured. Both smokers and vapers had a lower Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Peak expiratory flow, FEV1/Forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), Forced expiratory flow at 25%, 25–75% of FVC, FEF25-75pred% and higher carboxyhaemoglobin% than controls (p < 0.05). In smokers, but not in vapers, FEV1pred% was lower than in controls (p < 0.01). MRP did not differ significantly between the three groups. Vaping has similar detrimental effects as CS on pulmonary function and may thus not be a healthier alternative to smoking

    Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is aggravated by obesity: An investigation of contractile function, implications and treatment

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    Obesity is a global epidemic and coupled with the unprecedented growth of the world’s older adult population, a growing number of individuals are both old and obese. Whilst both ageing and obesity are associated with an increased prevalence of chronic health conditions and a substantial economic burden, evidence suggests that the coincident effects exacerbate negative health out-comes. A significant contributor to such detrimental effects may be the reduction in the contractile performance of skeletal muscle, given that poor muscle function is related to chronic disease, poor quality of life and all-cause mortality. Whilst the effects of ageing and obesity independently on skeletal muscle function have been investigated, the combined effects are yet to be thoroughly explored. Given the importance of skeletal muscle to whole-body health and physical function, the present study sought to provide a review of the literature to: (1) summarise the effect of obesity on the age-induced reduction in skeletal muscle contractile function; (2) understand whether obesity effects on skeletal muscle are similar in young and old muscle; (3) consider the consequences of these changes to whole-body functional performance; (4) outline important future work along with the potential for targeted intervention strategies to mitigate potential detrimental effects

    Skeletal muscle properties and fatigue resistance in relation to smoking history

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    Although smoking-related diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are often accompanied by increased peripheral muscle fatigability, the extent to which this is a feature of the disease or a direct effect of smoking per se is not known. Skeletal muscle function was investigated in terms of maximal voluntary isometric torque, activation, contractile properties and fatigability, using electrically evoked contractions of the quadriceps muscle of 40 smokers [19 men and 21 women; mean (SD) cigarette pack years: 9.9 (10.7)] and age- and physical activity level matched non-smokers (22 men and 23 women). Maximal strength and isometric contractile speed did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers. Muscle fatigue (measured as torque decline during a series of repetitive contractions) was greater in smokers (P = 0.014), but did not correlate with cigarette pack years (r = 0.094, P = 0.615), cigarettes smoked per day (r = 10.092, P = 0.628), respiratory function (%FEV1pred) (r = −0.187, P = 0.416), or physical activity level (r = −0.029, P = 0.877). While muscle mass and contractile properties are similar in smokers and non-smokers, smokers do suffer from greater peripheral muscle fatigue. The observation that the cigarette smoking history did not correlate with fatigability suggests that the effect is either acute and/or reaches a ceiling, rather than being cumulative. An acute and reversible effect of smoking could be caused by carbon monoxide and/or other substances in smoke hampering oxygen delivery and mitochondrial function

    Morphological alterations of mouse skeletal muscles during early ageing are muscle specific

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    One of the hallmarks of ageing is muscle wasting that may be preceded by morphological changes, such as capillary rarefaction. Muscle-specific changes in morphology in early ageing may differ between locomotor and respiratory muscles. To investigate this, we compared capillarization, fiber type composition, fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA) and oxidative capacity of individual fibers of the soleus (n = 6/5 for 20- and 79 weeks, respectively), extensor digitorum longus (EDL: n = 3/3) and diaphragm (n = 7/5) muscles in 20- (mature) and 79-week-old (early ageing) CD-1 female mice. There was no significant loss of soleus and EDL mass. The FCSA was larger and the capillary density lower at 79 than 20 weeks in the diaphragm, while in the EDL the opposite was found (both p ≤ 0.002) with no significant ageing-related differences in the soleus. The heterogeneity in capillary spacing, which may negatively impact on muscle oxygenation, was highest in muscles from 20-week-old mice, irrespective of muscle (p ≤ 0.011). Succinate dehydrogenase activity, indicative of oxidative capacity, and capillary to fiber ratio did not significantly change with age in any muscle. At all ages, the capillary supply to a fiber was positively related to FCSA in each muscle. We conclude that despite previously reported early age-related reductions in specific tension in both locomotor and respiratory muscles, morphological changes show a muscle-specific pattern in early ageing CD-1 mice. Specifically, early ageing was associated with 1) diaphragm hypertrophy 2) and fiber atrophy in the EDL that was not accompanied by angiogenesis, capillary rarefaction or reductions in oxidative capacity

    Tensiomyographic assessment of muscle contractile properties in 9- to 14-year old children

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    While there are numerous data on the skeletal muscle fibre type composition in adults, little is known about the changes in fibre type composition and contractile properties during maturational growth in children. Using noninvasive tensiomyography we measured contraction time, an indirect estimate of the myosin heavy chain I (MHC-I) proportion, to assess the longitudinal changes of the biceps brachii (BB), biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL), and erector spinae (ES) muscles in 53 boys and 54 girls. The children were 9 years at the start of the study and returned for 5 follow-up measurements till the age of 14 years. The ES has the shortest and the BF has the longest Tc. The VL and ES of boys have shorter Tc than those from girls. When applying the relationship between proportion of MHC-I and Tc established in adults to the children TMG data, we found a slow-to-fast transition in the VL between at least the age of 6 and 10 years, when it had stabilized to adult proportions. Regular participation in sport was associated with a faster BF, but not in VL. Our data represents a first non-invasive indication of the developmental changes in muscle fiber type composition in children

    Impact of age, performance and athletic event on injury rates in master athletics - First results from an ongoing prospective study

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    Objectives: Recent studies have identified rates of injuries in young elite athletes during major athletic events. However, no such data exist on master athletes. The aim of this study was to assess incidence and types of injuries during the 2012 European Veteran Athletics Championships as a function of age, performance and athletic discipline. Methods: Report forms were used to identify injured athletes and injury types. Analysis included age (grouped in five-year bands beginning at age 35 years), athletic event, and age-graded performance. Results: Of the 3154 athletes (53.2 years (SD 12.3)) that participated in the championships (1004 (31.8%) women, 2150 (68.2%) men), 76 were registered as injured; 2.8% of the female (29), 2.2% of the male (47) athletes. There were no fractures. One injury required operative treatment (Achilles tendon rupture). Injury rates were significantly higher in the sprint/middle distance/jumps than the throws, long distance and decathlon/heptathlon groups (Χ² (3)=16.187, P=0.001). There was no significant interrelationship with age (Χ² (12)=6.495, P=0.889) or age-graded performance (Χ² (3)=3.563, P=0.313). Conclusions: The results suggest that healthy master athletes have a low risk of injury that does not increase with age or performance

    Absence of Bilateral Differences in Child Baseball Players with Throwing-related Pain

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    © Georg Thieme Verlag KGStuttgart · New York.The aim of this study was to assess whether side-to-side differences in morphology and function of the upper limbs in 11-12 year-old male baseball players with throwing-related pain (n=14) were more pronounced than that of age-matched healthy untrained subjects (n=16). Baseball players 1) had played baseball≥4.5 h·wk−1 for ≥ 4 years and (2) suffered from moderate-intensity (3-6 points on 10-point questionnaire scale) throwing-related pain in the shoulder or elbow in at least 2 training sessions within the past month. The range of motion (ROM), function and structure of the elbows and shoulders were assessed using goniometry, isokinetic dynamometry and ultrasonography. While the ROM and eccentric external peak torque of internal shoulder rotation were lower, the thickness of the supraspinatus tendon, the ulnar collateral ligament and articular cartilage of the humeral head were larger in baseball players than controls. There were, however, no significant side-to-side differences in any parameter in either group. In conclusion, it is unlikely that side-to-side differences in shoulder and upper limb structure and function contributed to the throwing-related pain in young baseball players, but low shoulder eccentric external peak torque and range of internal rotation may predispose to throwing-related pain
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