734 research outputs found

    Optimizing CMS build infrastructure via Apache Mesos

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    The Offline Software of the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of 6M lines of in-house code, developed over a decade by nearly 1000 physicists, as well as a comparable amount of general use open-source code. A critical ingredient to the success of the construction and early operation of the WLCG was the convergence, around the year 2000, on the use of a homogeneous environment of commodity x86-64 processors and Linux. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager that provides efficient resource isolation and sharing across distributed applications, or frameworks. It can run Hadoop, Jenkins, Spark, Aurora, and other applications on a dynamically shared pool of nodes. We present how we migrated our continuos integration system to schedule jobs on a relatively small Apache Mesos enabled cluster and how this resulted in better resource usage, higher peak performance and lower latency thanks to the dynamic scheduling capabilities of Mesos.Comment: Submitted to proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP2015), Okinawa, Japa

    Response to Discussion of “A modular speed-drooped system for high reliability integrated modular motor drives”

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    The authors appreciate the interest shown in our paper. In the paper under discussion [1], a distributed speed control strategy suitable for multi-three-phase machines with enhanced power sharing capability is presented. The focus of the manuscript is on the power sharing transient controllability achieved by using a sharing regulator based on the droop controller, which was introduced for the first time by Fingas and Lehn [2]. In [1], the authors added the outermost loop in charge of restoring the drooped output speed. The overall control strategy and the design procedure of each loop - current, sharing, and speed - is presented and validated by means of experimental results. Two off-the-shelf three-phase induction machines coupled on the same shaft and controlled by a custom inverter were loaded by a third off-the-shelf three- phase induction machine

    Enhanced power sharing transient with droop controllers for multithree-phase synchronous electrical machines

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    This paper presents a droop-based distributed control strategy for multithree-phase machines that provides augmented controllability during power sharing transients. The proposed strategy is able to mitigate the mutual interactions among different sets of windings without controlling any subspace variable, also offering a modular and redundant design. On the contrary, in a centralized configuration, subspaces would be controlled using the vector space decomposition, but fault tolerance and reliability levels required by the stricter regulations and policies expected in future transportation systems would not be satisfied. The proposed method is analytically compared against the state-of-the-art power sharing technique and equivalent models and control design procedures have been derived and considered in the comparison. Uncontrolled power sharing transients and their effects on mutual couplings among isolated sets of windings have been compared against the proposed regulated ones. Experimental results on a 22-kW nine-phase multithree-phase synchronous machine rig validate the design procedures showing good agreement with the expected performances

    A Digital Internal Model Current Controller for Salient Machines

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    The performance of anisotropic electrical machines is strongly dependent on the current loop characteristics. The problems for achieving robustness and fast response, without overshoot and oscillations, are mainly related to different values and behaviour of the direct and quadrature inductances (Ld, Lq), as well as to high output frequencies. In this paper, a novel current controller structure based on Internal Model Control (IMC) method is presented, taking into account the magnetic anisotropy (Ld != Lq). The model of salient machines is derived directly in the discrete domain and used to obtain a model-based controller. The controller derivation does not rely on transport-delay approximations, which enables improved decoupling of axes dynamics and the closed-loop robustness for very high output frequencies. The presented controller enables enhanced response for higher current loop bandwidth and output frequencies than the state-of-the-art methods. The experimental verification is performed on a 3-phase synchronous machine, using a standard industrial 3-phase inverter

    Distributed current control for multi-three phase synchronous machines in fault conditions

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    Among challenges and requirements of on-going electrification process and future transportation systems there is demand for arrangements with both increased fault tolerance and reliability. Next aerospace, power-train and automotive systems exploiting new technologies are delving for new features and functionalities. Multi-three phase arrangements are one of these novel approaches where future implementation of aforementioned applications will benefit from. This paper presents and analyses distributed current control design for asymmetrical split-phase schemes composed by symmetrical three phase sections with even number of phases. The proposed design within the dq0 reference frame in nominal, open and short circuit condition of one three-phase system is compared with the vector space decomposition technique and further validated by mean of Matlab/Simulink ~R simulations

    Rotor Slot Design of Squirrel Cage Induction Motors with Improved Rated Efficiency and Starting Capability

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    Among the electro-mechanical devices transforming energy from electrical to mechanical, the squirrel cage induction motor can be surely considered a workhorse of the industry due to its robustness, low cost and good performance when directly fed by the a.c. grid. Being the most influencing motor topology in terms of energy consumption, optimizing the efficiency of squirrel cage induction motors could lead to a great impact towards the reduction of the human environmental footprint. The induction motor design aided by finite element analysis presents significant challenges because an accurate performance prediction requires a considerable computational burden. This paper makes use of an innovative fast and accurate performance evaluation method embedded into an automatic design procedure to optimize different rotor slot geometries. After introducing the performance estimation approach, its advantages and limits are discussed comparing its prediction with the experimental tests carried out on an off-the-shelf induction motor. Different rotor cage structures with increasing geometrical complexity are then optimized in terms of starting and rated performance adopting the same design optimization process, the same stator geometry and constituent materials. The analysis of the optimal solutions shows how it is possible to improve the rated efficiency without compromising other performance indexes. The presented results can be used as general design guidelines of squirrel cage induction motors for industrial applications

    An accurate wide-speed range control method of IPMSM considering resistive voltage drop and magnetic saturation

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    This paper deals with the high accurate current set-points solution for Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) in wide-speed range applications. Considering voltage and current constraints, the operating regions can be divided into Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA), Maximum Current (MC), Field Weakening (FW) and Maximum Torque Per Voltage (MTPV) regions, which requires to solve different non-linear functions in real time to obtain optimal current set-points. Traditional methods including curve-fitting methods and polynomial approximation (PA) methods are not easy to obtain these solutions, especially involving magnetic saturation problems. In this paper, Newton-Raphson (N-R) algorithm for improving the control accuracy of the current set-points is proposed. Meanwhile, parameters influence including magnetic saturation and resistive voltage drop is fully investigated. Compared with PA method, the proposed method is able to converge to accurate solutions in few numbers of iterations with reduced execution time, which can be easily implemented on an off-the-shelf Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Both simulation results and experimental results on an 8kW IPMSM rig are conducted showing good agreement with the expected results. Index Terms-Cross Saturation, flux-weakening control, interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM), magnetic Saturation, Newton-Raphson (N-R) method, resistive voltage drop

    Squirrel Cage Induction Motor: A Design-Based Comparison Between Aluminium and Copper Cages

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    Rotor Design Optimization of Squirrel Cage Induction Motor - Part I: Problem Statement

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    Squirrel cage induction motor is the most widely adopted electrical machine in applications directly fed by the main grid. The analysis, design and optimization of this machine topology has been addressed by a considerable amount of literature over the last century. Although its wide adoption, the induction motor design, especially when carried out in an automatic fashion, still presents significant challenges because the accurate prediction of the performance requires time-consuming finite element analysis. This work proposes a systematic approach to perform the design optimization of a squirrel cage induction motor focusing on the rotor slot geometry, being this the major player in defining the torque-speed characteristic. Structured as a two-parts companion papers, this first part presents an innovative performance evaluation methodology which allows a very fast estimation of the torque and efficiency behaviour preserving the results' accuracy. The proposed performance estimation technique is assessed against experimental tests carried out on an off-the-shelf induction motor. The selection of the performance indexes to be optimized is justified in detail along with the description of a generalized rotor parametrization which allows a comprehensive exploration of the research space

    A multi-port power conversion system for the more electric aircraft

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    In more electric aircraft (MEA) weight reduction and energy efficiency constitute the key figures. Additionally, the safety and continuity of operation of its electrical power distribution system (EPDS) is of critical importance. These sets of desired features are in disagreement with each other, because higher redundancy, needed to guarantee the safety of operation, implies additional weight. In fact, EPDS is usually divided into isolated sections, which need to be sized for the worst-case scenario. Several concepts of EPDS have been investigated, aiming at enabling the power exchange among separate sections, which allows better optimization for power and weight of the whole system. In this paper, an approach based on the widespread use of multi-port power converters for both DC/DC and DC/AC stages is proposed. System integration of these two is proposed as a multiport power conversion system (MPCS), which allows a ring power distribution while galvanic isolation is still maintained, even in fault conditions. Thus, redundancy of MEA is established by no significant weight increase. A machine design analysis shows how the segmented machine could offer superior performance to the traditional one with same weight. Simulation and experimental verifications show the system feasibility in both normal and fault operations
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