1,608 research outputs found

    Protein kinase E of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a role in the nitric oxide stress response and apoptosis in a human macrophage model of infection

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    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen, inhibits macrophage apoptosis to support survival and replication inside the host cell. We provide evidence that the functional serine/threonine kinase, PknE, is important for survival of M. tuberculosis that enhances macrophage viability by inhibiting apoptosis.Apromoter of PknE identified in this study was shown to respond to nitric oxide stress. Deletion of pknE in virulent M. tuberculosis, H37Rv, resulted in a strain that has increased resistance to nitric oxide donors and increased sensitivity to reducing agents. The deletion mutant created by specialized transduction induced enhanced apoptosis while inhibiting necrosis. The pknE mutant also modifies the innate immune response as shown by the marked decline in the pro-inflammatory cytokines in a macrophage model of infection. These findings suggest a novel mechanism,bywhichPknEsensesnitricoxidestress and prevents apoptosis by interfering with host signalling pathways

    Peripartum hysterectomy: a five year review at a tertiary care centre

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    Background: Peripartum hysterectomy is a life-saving procedure resorted to when conservative measures fail to control obstetric haemorrhage. Several predisposing factors, suboptimal care and lack of infrastructure may lead to this emergency procedure. We wanted to find out factors associated with peripartum hysterectomy and the adverse maternal outcomes at our centre.Methods: A retrospective case series analysis of 40 cases of peripartum hysterectomy performed over a period of 5 years from January 2010 to December 2014 at Government Medical College Hospital, Thrissur, Kerala was done.Results: The incidence of peripartum hysterectomy was 0.29%. The most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy was hysterectomy was uterine atony (50%). Thirty-five women (88%) were between 20 and 35 years. Most of the subjects were unbooked. There were two maternal deaths (case fatality rate of 5%) following peripartum hysterectomy during this period. All the subjects required blood transfusion.Conclusions: Prompt performance hysterectomy before the patient’s clinical condition deteriorates is the key to success. The incidence of adherent placenta is increasing, so every effort should be taken to reduce the caesarean section rates globally.

    Maternal and neonatal outcome in second stage cesarean section versus first stage: a comparative study

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    Background: Cesarean Section is the most commonly performed abdominal operation in women all over the world. Variable rates of cesarean section are reported between and within countries. Cesarean section at full cervical dilatation with an impacted fetal head can be technically difficult and is associated with increased trauma to the lower uterine segment and adjacent structures, as well as increased hemorrhage and infection.Methods: This is a comparative cross-sectional study comparing maternal and neonatal outcome between first stage and second stage cesarean section performed at Govt Medical College Thrissur.Results: In present study out of 90 cesarean sections 30 were performed in second stage and 60 in first stage.74 % were primigravida in second stage cs group. Arrest due to malposition was major indication for second stage (76% of cases). The most important complication among second stage cs group was PPH (76.7%) and majority of them needed blood transfusion. These complications were less in first stage cs group. Other Complications like increased duration of surgery (mean=53.3 min), post op fever (36% post op Wound infection (13.3%) was seen in second stage group. Fetal complications like low APGAR scores were seen in 16.7% of cases compared to first stage group and most of them needed resuscitation.Conclusions: Women undergoing cesarean section in second stage of labour had increased maternal and fetal morbidity. They required special care and hence Operation should ideally perform and supervised by an experienced obstetrician. Timely decision for cesarean section should be made especially when risk factors for failure to progress are present

    DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING IN A HEAVY TRUCK

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    A leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the suspension in wheeledvehicles. Leaf Springs are long and narrow plates attached to the frame of a trailer that rest above or below the trailer's axle. There are monoleaf springs, or single-leaf springs, that consist of simply one plate of spring steel. These are usually thick in the middle and taper out toward the end, and they don't typically offer too much strength and suspension for towed vehicles. Drivers looking to tow heavier loads typically use multileaf springs, which consist of several leaf springs of varying length stacked on top of each other. The shorter the leaf spring, the closer to the bottom it will be, giving it the same semielliptical shape a single leaf spring gets from being thicker in the middle. Springs will fail from fatigue caused by the repeated flexing of the spring. The aim of the project is to design and model a leaf spring according to the loads applied. Presently used material for leaf spring are forged steel. In this project we are going to design leaf spring for the materials Mild Steel and composite material Glass Carbon by varying reinforcement angle. We are going to check the strength variations while changing reinforcement angle. For validating this design we are conducting FEA  Structural Analysis is done on the leaf spring by using two different materials Mild Steel and Glass Carbon. Modal and fatiuge Analysis is also done. Pro/Engineer software is used for modeling and ANSYS is used for analysis

    Paraneoplastic polyarthritis in association with metastatic neuroendocrine tumour of the adrenal gland

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    Paraneoplastic polyarthritis is a rare manifestation described in association with various solid tumours. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, differential diagnosis, and management of a 28-year-old woman who presented with fever, weight loss, and symmetrical polyarthritis, subsequently diagnosed to have a metastatic neuroendocrine tumour of the adrenal gland with paraneoplastic polyarthritis. Paraneoplastic polyarthritis must be considered in polyarthritis unexplained by common aetiologies. The unusual presentation of this case, alerts us about the atypical presentation of these tumours. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case study of a neuroendocrine tumour presenting as paraneoplastic polyarthritis

    Fermentative valorisation of xylose-rich hemicellulosic hydrolysates from agricultural waste residues for lactic acid production under non-sterile conditions

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    Lactic acid (LA) is a platform chemical with diverse industrial applications. Presently, commercial production of LA is dominated by microbial fermentation using sugary or starch-based feedstocks. Research pursuits emphasizing towards sustainable production of LA using non-edible and renewable feedstocks have accelerated the use of lignocellulosic biomass (LCB). The present study focuses on the valorisation of xylose derived from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and olive pits (OP) through hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatment, respectively. The xylose-rich hydrolysate obtained was used for LA production by homo-fermentative and thermophilic Bacillus coagulans DSM2314 strain under non-sterile conditions. The fed-batch mode of fermentation resulted in maximum LA titers of 97.8, 52.4 and 61.3 g/L with a yield of 0.77, 0.66 and 0.71 g/g using pure xylose, xylose-rich SCB and OP hydrolysates, respectively. Further, a two-step aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) extraction technique was employed for the separation and recovery of LA accumulated on pure and crude xylose. The LA recovery was 45 – 65% in the first step and enhanced to 80–90% in the second step.The study demonstrated an efficient integrated biorefinery approach to valorising the xylose-rich stream for cost-effective LA production and recovery.Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC): BB/S011951/1. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC): EP/L016389/1. Innovate UK. Department of Biotechnology, Indi

    A genetically modified adenoviral vector with a phage display-derived peptide incorporated into fiber fibritin chimera prolongs survival in experimental glioma

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    The dismal clinical context of advanced-grade glioma demands the development of novel therapeutic strategies with direct patient impact. Adenovirus-mediated virotherapy represents a potentially effective approach for glioma therapy. In this research, we generated a novel glioma-specific adenovirus by instituting more advanced genetic modifications that can maximize the efficiency and safety of therapeutic adenoviral vectors. In this regard, a glioma-specific targeted fiber was developed through the incorporation of previously published glioma-specific, phage-panned peptide (VWT peptide) on a fiber fibritin-based chimeric fiber, designated as “GliomaFF.” We showed that the entry of this virus was highly restricted to glioma cells, supporting the specificity imparted by the phage-panned peptide. In addition, the stability of the targeting moiety presented by fiber fibritin structure permitted greatly enhanced infectivity. Furthermore, the replication of this virus was restricted in glioma cells by controlling expression of the E1 gene under the activity of the tumor-specific survivin promoter. Using this approach, we were able to explore the combinatorial efficacy of various adenoviral modifications that could amplify the specificity, infectivity, and exclusive replication of this therapeutic adenovirus in glioma. Finally, virotherapy with this modified virus resulted in up to 70% extended survival in an in vivo murine glioma model. These data demonstrate that this novel adenoviral vector is a safe and efficient treatment for this difficult malignancy

    Biological production and recovery of 2,3-butanediol using arabinose from sugar beet pulp by Enterobacter ludwigii

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    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is a major byproduct from the sugar industries and consists of >20% w/w arabinose. The current work evaluated the potential of Enterobacter ludwigii assimilating pure arabinose and arabinose rich hydrolysate from SBP pellets for 2,3-butanediol (BDO) production. The hydrolysate was obtained through dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) with sulphuric acid. The process was optimized for acid and solid loading to obtain a hydrolysate free from furan derivatives. The effect of different levels of substrate (10–60 g/L) using pure arabinose was conducted in shake flask experiments, followed by co-fermentation with small amounts of glucose and SBP hydrolysate. After flask cultivations, BDO fermentations were carried-out in a bench-top bioreactor in batch and fed-batch modes using pure arabinose as well as SBP hydrolysate. The fed-batch culture led to BDO production of 42.9 and 35.5 g/L from pure arabinose and SBP hydrolysate with conversion yields of 0.31 and 0.29 g/g, respectively. Finally, BDO accumulated on pure arabinose and SBP hydrolysate were recovered using an aqueous two-phase extraction system. The recovery yield of BDO accumulated on arabinose and hydrolysate was ∼97%. The work demonstrated the feasibility of using SBP as a suitable feedstock for manufacturing BDO

    Early detection of duodenal cancer by upper gastrointestinal-endoscopy in Lynch syndrome

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    Small bowel cancer (SBC) is the malignancy with the highest standardized incidence ratio in Lynch syndrome (LS) patients. Of all SBCs, about 50% are duodenal cancers (DCs), therefore being accessible by esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for surveillance. We asked whether early detection of DC is possible for LS patients undergoing surveillance by EGD and if surveillance should be limited to specific subgroups. Data for LS patients with DC were retrieved from the registry of the German Consortium for Familial Intestinal Cancer. Patients undergoing active surveillance by EGDs (surveillance group) were compared to those who did not (nonsurveillance group) regarding tumor stage at diagnosis. Union for International Cancer Control stages I-IIA were defined as early stage disease and IIB-IV as advanced stage disease. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Among 2015 patients with pathogenic variants in any mismatch-repair-gene, 47 patients with 49 DCs were identified. In 10% of cases, patients were under 35 years at diagnosis; family and personal tumor history did not correlate with DC diagnosis. Pathogenic germline variants in MSH6, PMS2 or EPCAM were present in 10% of patients. Statistical analysis could be performed on 13 DC patients in the surveillance group and 14 in the nonsurveillance group. Early detection was possible for 71% of patients in the surveillance group and 29% of patients in the nonsurveillance group (P = .021). Early detection of DC by EGD in LS patients is feasible regardless of family history, mutational status and should start no later than 25 years of age
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