21 research outputs found

    The environmental causes of cancer distribution in Syria

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    In the last decade Syria witnessed a boost in cancer incidences, as well as high mortality ratios. This research aims to illustrate the geographical distribution of cancer over Syria in details and to trace the expansion of incidence through time according to risk factors like age, gender, human behaviour. The paper consists of four parts: 1- Introduction to the topic (cancer and the environmental influence of its distribution) and explanation of the used terms. 2- The relationship between cartogeographical sciences and the topic of the paper. 3- Building a Geographical Information System according to the major district in Syria. 4- Building a Geographical Information System for the southern part of Syria (the most infected place). 5- Results and discussion. The study employed the geographical tools to investigate the geographical distribution of cancer disease and the environmental factor that controls this distribution. The used methods are the statistical, systematic, analytical descriptive, comparative and the cartographical which were employed differently according to the data characteristics. Personal and spatial data were collected from treatment points in a questionnaire that allowed adjusting each of them on the electronic interactive map. Data was analysed statistically and cartographically depicted. Accordingly parallel descriptive and comparative data were added for reaching the final conclusions. Thematic maps were the final product of using GIS. The cartographical product helped to analyse the epidemiological cluster and the accumulated risk factors. The resulted maps were an analytical tool revealing the concepts of spatial data. Natural risk factors were the main focus in addition to people nutrition habits. The studied factors were depicted in three map scales. The recorded incidences for 2002 till 2008 were depicted as well. The output is an atlas of: 1- 1/2000,000 Syria maps showing the big clusters of the disease and the risk factor. 2- 1/2000,000 Choropleth maps showing the ratio of incidence to the census of each Syrian district, 3- 1/200,000 for the southern part of Syria which showed the highest incidence ratios (Al-Souida county). The study showed many clusters based on the kind of cancer and the kind of risk factor and drew the attention to some risk factors that people disregard (the frequent relative marriage in the region of Al-Souida) and some uncommon ones like rock type (Al-Souida). Tracing pollution in time line helped to link the earlier influences and the accumulated factor to the recent incidence. the geographical risk factors were the minor reasons for the cancer clusters (elevation height, solar radiation, rock type, polluted gases in the atmosphere and water wells), meanwhile people habitual activities were the major reason (kind of job, smoking and nutrition system). Considerably some urgent risk factor caused the small clusters up on different groups of people (eating food exported to the city of Dier al-zor which was polluted by radiation)

    Users characteristic influence on the efficiency of typographic design

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    This paper investigates the efficiency of typographic design using Bertin’s variables, both individually and combined. A user study was con-ducted in which two types of map users had to perform a search task. The first group consists out of participants who have been trained in cartog-raphy and who use maps on a daily basis. The second group of users are novices who have not got any previous education in cartography. Users’ efficiency was calculated by measuring the consumed time to find the target label. The obtained data was analyzed statistically to compare the efficiency of users’ performance regarding the applicability of visual variables on la-bels. Using ANOVA showed some significant differences between users’ group and within users’ groups (P<0.05)

    Label size design : aesthetics and effeciency

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    Considering label as one of the important map component, this paper is an attempt to provide empirical evidence of label size design rules and frames which is based on the design aesthetics and efficiency. Determining the ‘best’ legible label size is critical concern involves testing design aspect and needs. Both aesthetics and efficiency can set the design frames for better perception and legibility. Aesthetics was calculated by determining users´ preference of different use of label sizes, whereas efficiency was calculated by measuring time to locate targets of different. Both areal and point data were involved in the study to determine the combination of the two measurements of label size design. Digital maps were designed and presented to users as they were firstly asked about their preference of different use of label size, and secondly they were asked to locate different label size. The intersection between the first test and the second one attributes the frames for label size design. The correlation between the preferable sizes and the efficient sizes is being traced and the relation between label size aesthetics and efficiency is being identified. This study indicates the need to test other visual variable in order to serve many labelling functions

    Assessing visual variables of cartographic text design

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    This dissertation presents a series of usability studies, which examines the usability of the application of visual variables on cartographic text. Labels’ size, shape, orientation, texture, and colour were tested. The study also examines different lettering systems and their impact on cartographic text design. The obtained users’ preference, time measurement, questionnaires and eye tracking data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Insights are acquired to improve the quality of map through Improving cartographic text design

    The influence of Jacques Bertin

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    This paper investigates the applicability of Bertin‟s variables -both individually and combined - on texts and labels. A user study was conducted in which two types of map users had to express their preference towards the applicability of these variables on texts and labels. The first group consists out of participants who have been trained in cartography and who use maps on a daily basis. The second group of users are non-experts who have not gotten any previous education in cartography. The obtained data is analyzed statistically to compare the level of agreement in the user‟s preferences regarding the applicability of Bertin‟s variables between both user groups. Using the Kappa test as a measure of agreement shows a significant marginal agreement (κ < 0.4)

    Typography in the eyes of Bertin, gender and expertise variation

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    The main goal of this research is to set a group of typographic criteria to suit a wide array of map users. A group of Bertin's visual variables were applied individually and associatively for the same set of labels. Two kinds of maps (with point and areal objects) were presented to expert and non-expert map users and analysed accordingly. Additionally, the effect of gender variation was taken into account. The data were aggregated and studied for each graphical variable. For some combinations of Bertin's variables, statistically significant differences were detected in the preferences of the different map users (e.g. male versus female and expert versus non-expert). Consequently, we identified which graphical variables (individually or combined) were more preferred by specific user groups in relation to their application on text objects

    Study of the phase Equilibrium in the diagram system MnO2─NaVO3

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    The importance of diagram  system MnO2─NaVO3 is in obtaining a crystal phase (chemical compounds or solid solutions). Acknowledging the fact that these compounds have grade properties in the field of technology, it was important to study the possibility of obtaining  new phases with different mole ratios, and to draw phase diagram for it, especially the used compounds in this study have different crystal structures. The samples were made beginning from powders of reagent grade MnO2 and NaVO3 of 5gr for each of them at following percentage mole ratios of MnO2: (10, 20, 25, 30, 33.33, 50, 66.66, 70, 71, 75, 80, 90). The mixing and grinding process was made for these samples. Then, it made pills ellipsoidal using manually hydraulic press, and it burned into oven at different degrees. The study was made using powder X─Rays diffraction PXRD and different thermal analysis TG─ DTA. The results are compared with X─rays spectrums of grade compounds and parameters of it. Then, the formation phase changes degrees were determined. New compound was formed at ratio  (MnO2)10(NaVO3)90 mole%, and crystal solid solution was formed to ratio (MnO2)25(NaVO3)75 mole%. As well solid solution (amorphous+ new compound) was formed until mole ratio (MnO2)75(NaVO3)25 mole%, and amorphous solid solution was formed beginning  mole ratio (MnO2)80(NaVO3)20 mole%, then the phase diagram for the studied system was drawing.

    Evaluating the efficiency of typographic design : gender and expertise variation

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    Although the efficiency of label placement algorithms has been studied extensively, few studies considered the influence of the label designs on the efficiency of map readers. Labels are one of the most important elements on the map as they can provide more information than other symbols can. The design of the labels does have to stress the theme, shape and functionality of the associated objects, which results in a more efficient interpretation of the map content by the user. How the label designs can enhance the map readers' efficiency (and thus the quality of the maps themselves) is the main objective of this study. A user study was conducted in which the participants were asked to locate a target label on a map. Different label designs were implemented across the trials. The participants' reactions times were registered to measure their efficiency and statistically analysed using a one-way ANOVA. Two different users' characteristics were considered: gender and expertise. Related to the size, shape, orientation and texture of the labels, a number of significant differences (P<0.05) and trends were located. Differences in efficiency between males and females, on the one hand, and between novices and experts, on the other hand, were also described statistically. Consequently, recommendations can be formulated regarding the design of labels in order to obtain more efficient maps, keeping in mind the map users' characteristics

    Chiral Capillary Electrokinetic Chromatography: Principle and Applications, Detection and Identification, Design of Experiment, and Exploration of Chiral Recognition Using Molecular Modeling

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    This work reviews the literature of chiral capillary electrokinetic chromatography from January 2016 to March 2021. This is done to explore the state-of-the-art approach and recent developments carried out in this field. The separation principle of the technique is described and supported with simple graphical illustrations, showing migration under normal and reversed polarity modes of the separation voltage. The most relevant applications of the technique for enantioseparation of drugs and other enantiomeric molecules in different fields using chiral selectors in single, dual, or multiple systems are highlighted. Measures to improve the detection sensitivity of chiral capillary electrokinetic chromatography with UV detector are discussed, and the alternative aspects are explored, besides special emphases to hyphenation compatibility to mass spectrometry. Partial filling and counter migration techniques are described. Indirect identification of the separated enantiomers and the determination of enantiomeric migration order are mentioned. The application of Quality by Design principles to facilitate method development, optimization, and validation is presented. The elucidation and explanation of chiral recognition in molecular bases are discussed with special focus on the role of molecular modeling
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