19 research outputs found

    Systemic Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Increases Neuron Survival after Global Cerebral Ischemia In Vivo (2VO)

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    Although many studies have shown that administration of stem cells after focal cerebral ischemia improves brain damage, very little data are available concerning the damage induced by global cerebral ischemia. The latter causes neuronal death in selectively vulnerable areas, including the hippocampal CA1 region. We tested the hypothesis that intravenous infusion of bone marrowderived stromal cells (mesenchimal stem cells, MSC) reduce brain damage after transient global ischemia. In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats transient global ischemia was induced using bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 20 min in addition to controlled hypotension. Five days after, the animals were anaesthetized with urethane and the brain was fixed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to investigate histological damage. MSC did not fully protect against ischemic damage, as the number of viable neurons in this group was lower than in normal (sham-operated) rats. However, in MSC-treated rats the number of viable CA1 pyramidal neurons was significally higher than in rats that had been subjected to ischemia but not treated with MSC. We conclude that intravenous administration of MSC after transient global ischemia reduces hippocampal damage

    A multicenter study on the diagnostic significance of a single cerebrospinal fluid IgG band

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    The analysis of paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples with isolectric focusing (IEF) can yield different patterns which can be of aid in the differential diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Rarely, a single CSF-restricted IgG band, which is not included within these patterns, can be detected in association with inflammatory disorders, multiple sclerosis (MS) above all. However, the diagnostic meaning of this abnormality is still uncertain. The main aim of our multicenter study was to establish the frequency and disease associations of single CSF IgG bands. Differences in the CSF profiles between MS and other diseases, and the follow-up patterns were also evaluated. Medical records of patients who underwent CSF analysis, which included IEF, over a 11.5-year period were retrospectively scrutinized at the participating centers, which used similar IEF techniques. One hundred and fifty-one of 9422 CSF reports (1.6%) showed single CSF-restricted IgG bands. Of the 129 patients with a definite diagnosis, 58.2% had CNS inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (the most frequent being MS: 21.7%), 6.2% tumours, 5.4% inflammatory peripheral nervous system diseases and 30.2% miscellaneous diseases. At follow-up, 3 out of the 10 patients with a repeated CSF analysis had developed an oligoclonal band pattern. Our findings indicate that single CSF IgG bands tend to associate with diseases characterized by the involvement of intrathecal humoral immune responses, and strongly support the notion that this abnormality should be regularly reported, thus alerting clinicians of possible inflammatory disorders of the CNS

    Role of miRNAs shuttled by mesenchymal stem cell-derived small extracellular vesicles in modulating neuroinflammation

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    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are characterized by neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and neuroregenerative properties, which support their therapeutic potential for inflammatory/neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One mode of action through which MSCs exert their immunomodulatory effects is release of extracellular vesicles that carry proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs), which, once transferred, modify the function of target cells. We identified nine miRNAs significantly dysregulated in IFN-\u3b3-primed MSCs, but present at different levels in their derived small extracellular vesicles (s-EV). We show that miR-467f and miR-466q modulate the pro-inflammatory phenotype of activated N9 microglia cells and of primary microglia acutely isolated from late symptomatic SOD1G93A mice, a murine ALS model, by downregulating Tnf and Il1b expression. Further analysis of the mode of action of miR-467f and miR-466q indicated that they dampen the pro-inflammatory phenotype of microglia by modulating p38 MAPK signaling pathway via inhibition of expression of their target genes, Map3k8 and Mk2. Finally, we demonstrated that in vivo administration of s-EV leads to decreased expression of neuroinflammation markers in the spinal cord of EAE-affected mice, albeit without affecting disease course. Overall, our data suggest that MSC-derived exosomes could affect neuroinflammation possibly through specific immunomodulatory miRNAs acting on microglia