6 research outputs found

    Audio-Visual Automatic Speech Recognition Using PZM, MFCC and Statistical Analysis

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    Audio-Visual Automatic Speech Recognition (AV-ASR) has become the most promising research area when the audio signal gets corrupted by noise. The main objective of this paper is to select the important and discriminative audio and visual speech features to recognize audio-visual speech. This paper proposes Pseudo Zernike Moment (PZM) and feature selection method for audio-visual speech recognition. Visual information is captured from the lip contour and computes the moments for lip reading. We have extracted 19th order of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) as speech features from audio. Since all the 19 speech features are not equally important, therefore, feature selection algorithms are used to select the most efficient features. The various statistical algorithm such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-wallis, and Friedman test are employed to analyze the significance of features along with Incremental Feature Selection (IFS) technique. Statistical analysis is used to analyze the statistical significance of the speech features and after that IFS is used to select the speech feature subset. Furthermore, multiclass Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Naive Bayes (NB) machine learning techniques are used to recognize the speech for both the audio and visual modalities. Based on the recognition rate combined decision is taken from the two individual recognition systems. This paper compares the result achieved by the proposed model and the existing model for both audio and visual speech recognition. Zernike Moment (ZM) is compared with PZM and shows that our proposed model using PZM extracts better discriminative features for visual speech recognition. This study also proves that audio feature selection using statistical analysis outperforms methods without any feature selection technique

    Isolation of hexavalent chromium (VI) tolerant fungi from tannery effluent and their growth responses to different concentrations of chromium (VI)

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    The main objective of this study was to isolate, characterize, and determine chromium (VI) tolerance capacities of fungal strains from tannery effluent of the Kolkata Leather Complex area. Chromium (VI) is a heavy metal that is known to be toxic as well as carcinogenic. It is an important heavy metal widely used in various industries of which the tanning industry deserves special mention. The majority of Cr (VI) waste is discharged into the environment annually as a consequence of industrial and manufacturing activities. Kolkata Leather Complex is an industrial complex intended to serve as a central leather-tanning complex for Kolkata located at Bantala, near East Kolkata, India. Samples (tannery effluent) were collected in sterile capped tubes from Kolkata Leather Complex Area and brought to the laboratory for analysis. The samples were serially diluted and were plated on Czapekdox agar plates and incubated at 300C. After a few days, a number of morphologically different colonies were selected and sequentially subcultured for pure colony isolation on the same medium. They were preserved in the refrigerator at 40 C. Lactophenol cotton blue staining was done to observe and record the fungal morphological characteristics. They were further assessed for their hexavalent chromium tolerance capacities and subsequently the metal tolerance index was derived for each strain respectively. All 16 fungal strains isolated from the Kolkata Leather Complex tannery area were found to be chromium (VI) tolerant starting at 0.1mg/ml Cr (VI) concentration. Maximum chromium (VI) tolerance was displayed by sample S12 (2mg/ml) which was later identified as having 99.82% similarity with Aspergillus nomius strain.Keywords:聽effluent,聽fungi,聽heavy聽metal,聽isolation,聽hexavalent聽chromium,聽tannery,聽tolerance

    Isolation and characterization of chromium (vi) tolerant bacterial strains isolated from the tannery effluent of park circus area.

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    Heavy metals contamination is a global environmental concern because it is difficult to remove these contaminants from the environment, unlike other pollutants. Chromium (Cr) is one of the most important heavy metals used extensively in various industries, out of which the tanning industry deserves special mention. There are more than 2500 tanneries in the country and nearly 80% of the tanneries are engaged in the chrome tanning process. Massive amounts of Cr waste are discharged annually in the environment as a result of industrial and manufacturing activities. Cr, a highly reactive element with an oxidation state of 6 exhibits stability as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). Hexavalent chromium is actually more toxic in effect to living organisms than its trivalent form. USEPA has classified Cr (VI) as a group A carcinogen, based on its chronic effects. Prolonged exposure to Cr (VI) is found to cause cancer in the digestive tract and lungs and in other cases epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting. Cr (VI) exposure has severe impacts on aquatic species also. In the present study chromium (VI) tolerant bacterial strains were isolated from the tannery effluent of Park Circus area. Most of the bacterial isolates were Gram-negative while few were Gram-positive. 6 bacterial strains were tested for their Cr tolerance capacity of which S6 showed maximum Cr tolerance of 0.4-0.5 mg/ml. The growth responses to different concentrations of Cr (VI) by the bacterial isolates, were also studied. The responses of the bacteria depended on the time of incubation and Cr (VI) concentration. Keywords: Chromium, tolerance, bacteria, growth response.      La contaminaci贸n por metales pesados 鈥嬧媏s una preocupaci贸n ambiental mundial porque es dif铆cil eliminar estos contaminantes del medio ambiente, a diferencia de otros contaminantes. El cromo (Cr) es uno de los metales pesados 鈥嬧媘谩s importantes que se utiliza ampliamente en diversas industrias, de las cuales la industria del curtido merece una menci贸n especial. Hay m谩s de 2500 curtidur铆as en el pa铆s y casi el 80% de las curtidur铆as se dedican al proceso de curtido al cromo. Anualmente se descargan enormes cantidades de residuos de Cr en el medio ambiente como resultado de las actividades industriales y de fabricaci贸n. El Cr, un elemento altamente reactivo con un estado de oxidaci贸n de 6, presenta estabilidad como Cr (III) y Cr (VI). El cromo hexavalente tiene un efecto m谩s t贸xico para los organismos vivos que su forma trivalente. La USEPA ha clasificado al Cr (VI) como carcin贸geno del grupo A, con base en sus efectos cr贸nicos. Se ha descubierto que la exposici贸n prolongada al Cr (VI) provoca c谩ncer en el tracto digestivo y los pulmones y, en otros casos, dolor epig谩strico, n谩useas y v贸mitos. La exposici贸n al Cr (VI) tambi茅n tiene graves impactos en las especies acu谩ticas. En el presente estudio se aislaron cepas bacterianas tolerantes al cromo (VI) del efluente de la curtidur铆a del 谩rea de Park Circus. La mayor铆a de los aislados bacterianos fueron gramnegativos, mientras que pocos fueron grampositivos. Se analizaron 6 cepas bacterianas para determinar su capacidad de tolerancia al Cr, de las cuales S6 mostr贸 una tolerancia m谩xima al Cr de 0,4-0,5 mg / ml. Tambi茅n se estudiaron las respuestas de crecimiento a diferentes concentraciones de Cr (VI) por los aislados bacterianos. Las respuestas de las bacterias dependieron del tiempo de incubaci贸n y de la concentraci贸n de Cr (VI). Palabras clave: cromo, tolerancia, bacterias, respuesta de crecimiento.La contaminaci贸n por metales pesados 鈥嬧媏s una preocupaci贸n ambiental mundial porque es dif铆cil eliminar estos contaminantes del medio ambiente, a diferencia de otros contaminantes. El cromo (Cr) es uno de los metales pesados 鈥嬧媘谩s importantes que se utiliza ampliamente en diversas industrias, de las cuales la industria del curtido merece una menci贸n especial. Hay m谩s de 2500 curtidur铆as en el pa铆s y casi el 80% de las curtidur铆as se dedican al proceso de curtido al cromo. Anualmente se descargan enormes cantidades de residuos de Cr en el medio ambiente como resultado de las actividades industriales y de fabricaci贸n. El Cr, un elemento altamente reactivo con un estado de oxidaci贸n de 6, presenta estabilidad como Cr (III) y Cr (VI). El cromo hexavalente tiene un efecto m谩s t贸xico para los organismos vivos que su forma trivalente. La USEPA ha clasificado al Cr (VI) como carcin贸geno del grupo A, con base en sus efectos cr贸nicos. Se ha descubierto que la exposici贸n prolongada al Cr (VI) provoca c谩ncer en el tracto digestivo y los pulmones y, en otros casos, dolor epig谩strico, n谩useas y v贸mitos. La exposici贸n al Cr (VI) tambi茅n tiene graves impactos en las especies acu谩ticas. En el presente estudio se aislaron cepas bacterianas tolerantes al cromo (VI) del efluente de la curtidur铆a del 谩rea de Park Circus. La mayor铆a de los aislados bacterianos fueron gramnegativos, mientras que pocos fueron grampositivos. Se analizaron 6 cepas bacterianas para determinar su capacidad de tolerancia al Cr, de las cuales S6 mostr贸 una tolerancia m谩xima al Cr de 0,4-0,5 mg / ml. Tambi茅n se estudiaron las respuestas de crecimiento a diferentes concentraciones de Cr (VI) por los aislados bacterianos. Las respuestas de las bacterias dependieron del tiempo de incubaci贸n y de la concentraci贸n de Cr (VI). Palabras clave: cromo, tolerancia, bacterias, respuesta de crecimiento

    Audio-Visual Automatic Speech Recognition Towards Education for Disabilities

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    Education is a fundamental right that enriches everyone鈥檚 life. However, physically challenged people often debar from the general and advanced education system. Audio-Visual Automatic Speech Recognition (AV-ASR) based system is useful to improve the education of physically challenged people by providing hands-free computing. They can communicate to the learning system through AV-ASR. However, it is challenging to trace the lip correctly for visual modality. Thus, this paper addresses the appearance-based visual feature along with the co-occurrence statistical measure for visual speech recognition. Local Binary Pattern-Three Orthogonal Planes (LBP-TOP) and Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is proposed for visual speech information. The experimental results show that the proposed system achieves 76.60 % accuracy for visual speech and 96.00 % accuracy for audio speech recognition

    Analytical Study of Vyadhi Lakshan W.S.R. to Pandu Roga

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    Following the intake of various causative factors, three fundamental alterations happen within human body - vitiation of Dosha (Dosha Prakopana), affliction of Dhatus by vitiated Doshas (Dhatu Pradushana) and impairment of channels (Kha Vaigunya). Localization of vitiated Doshas within channels depends on the site of Kha Vaigunya which ultimately leads to interaction between vitiated Dosha and Dhatus - known as Dosha Dushya Sammurchhana . Dosha Dushya Sammurchhana takes place following two principles of amalgamation - Prakriti Sama Samavaya and Vikriti Vishama Samavaya. As consequence of this amalgamation, several signs and symptoms do appear in body depending on the involved Dosha, Dhatu, state of Agni, type of Srota & Srotadusti and various other factors. Clinical features of any disease can be classified in to two category - those which appears before the onset of actual disease are known as Purva Rupa or prodromal features and when these features become more prominent in the mature state of disease, they are called Rupa / Lakshana or main clinical features. The mechanism behind appearance of every sign and symptom in the course of illness can be explained on the basis of several factors like involved Dosha, Dhatus, Agni, Srota, Oja and various other factors depending on the principle of Karya Karana Vada. Thus these clinical features of any disease which are mentioned in different classical texts should not be regarded as just mere scholarly inference, rather each and every symptoms can be explained methodically applying the principles of Ayurveda. For this purpose, example of a common disease in form of Pandu Roga has been taken in this article and explanation has been given about the possible mechanism of appearance of various prodromal features and principal features of this disease

    Critical Study on Role of Nidan in Causation of Disease w.s.r. to Pandu

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    In the genesis of a disease, Nidan or Hetu (causative factors) play the most crucial role. When vitiated Doshas afflict Dhatus- this conglomeration leads to a state of Vikriti (disequilibrium) in our body which further leads to genesis of one or more disease. In respect of any disease, the role of Hetu can be divided in to three pathways- Dosha Prakopan (vitiation of Doshas by Hetu), Kha Vaigunya (impairment of channels by Hetu) and Dhatu Dusti (vitiation of Dhatus by Hetu). The role of any causative factor in relation with genesis of a particular disease can be viewed in respect with any of these three pathways. In this article, the authors have made an effort to explain the role of Hetu in light of above mentioned concept. To understand it better, we have taken an example of Pandu. Pandu is a disease which has been described with great importance in all major and minor texts of Ayurveda. It is caused by vitiation of Pitta Dosha, mainly Sadhak Pitta and affliction of mainly Rakta Dhatu. The role of each and every Hetu in genesis of Pandu has been explained through their role in Dosha Prakopana (vitiation of Pitta Dosha), Dhatu Dusti (Rakta Dusti) and Kha Vaigunya (impairment of channels)
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