8 research outputs found

    African Adansonia digitata fruit pulp (baobab) modifies provitamin A carotenoid bioaccessibility from composite pearl millet porridges

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    Food-to-food fortification of staple cereal products using nutrient-dense plants shows promise to address multiple micronutrient deficiencies including vitamin A, iron and zinc in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited information on the potential interaction effects that such food-to-food fortified strategies may have on individual micronutrient bioavailability. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of incorporating Adansonia digitata (baobab fruit pulp), a mineral-rich plant material, on the delivery of carotenoids from a composite cereal porridge. Formulations of native fruit/vegetable-cereal composites were screened for interactions which could influence both bioaccessibility and subsequent intestinal uptake of provitamin A carotenoids. Proportions of pearl millet flour and plant materials were dry blended to provide composite cereal porridges with total provitamin A carotenoid concentrations ranging from 3590.7 ± 23.4 to 3698.5 ± 26.5 μg/100 g (fw) and baobab concentrations ranging from 0 to 25% (dw).While there were no significant differences in provitamin A carotenoid bioaccessibility from porridge formulations containing 5 or 15% baobab, inclusion of 25% baobab resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in bioaccessibility (13.3%) as compared to the control (23.8%). Despite the reduced bioaccessibility, 6 h uptake efficiency of provitamin A carotenoids by Caco-2 human intestinal cells was not significantly altered by 25% baobab inclusion. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effects on carotenoid micellarization (bioaccessibility) observed with increased baobab addition may not ultimately limit the bioavailability of carotenoids.The USAID FoodProcessing & Post Harvest Innovation Lab (FPLAID-0AA-L-14-00003) and Sorghum & Millet Innovation Lab (SMILAID-0AA-A-13-00047) through United States Agency for International Development (USAID).http://link.springer.com/journal/131972020-11-22hj2020Consumer ScienceFood Scienc

    The Effect of Incorporating Nutrient-Dense Native African Plant Materials on the Bioaccessibility of Provitamin A Carotenoids from Composite Cereal-Based Food Products

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    Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of childhood blindness affecting over 190 million preschool children around the world where the highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa (1). The coexistence of this deficiency with shortfalls in iron and zinc has resulted in a shift in intervention strategies from single targeted approach to broader diet diversification. As a result, food-based strategies leveraging local nutrient-dense plants as natural fortificants have gained significant interest for their potential to simultaneously address multiple micronutrient, and in some instances macronutrient, deficiencies. However, the efficacy of such approach depends upon several factors including knowledge on the nutritional composition of native plant materials as well as strategies for their incorporation into staple consumer products. Additionally, there is lack of information on impact of concurrent introduction of mineral and provitamin A rich plants on the stability and bioavailability of each individual nutrients including changes in these factors over extended periods of exposure. This is a key point considering that many of these materials are reported to have potential inhibitors of carotenoid absorption (minerals, fiber and phenolics). To address these research gaps, this dissertation focuses on three areas including 1) micronutrient, phytochemical and polysaccharide characterization of three commercially available native micronutrient dense African plant materials [Adansonia digitata (baobab), Moringa Oleifera (moringa) and Hibiscus Sabdariffa (hibiscus)] that have been targeted for use as natural iron fortificants; 2) determination of the impact of these materials on the bioaccessibility and intestinal uptake of provitamin A carotenoids from model composite cereal products and 3) assess the effect of longer term exposure to baobab and moringa on provitamin A carotenoid absorption and cellular differentiation biomarkers of human intestinal Caco-2 cells to better understand the potential impacts of extended exposure periods on long term micronutrient uptake. Characterization of the plant fortificants focused on understanding both nutritive components and potential limiters of carotenoid bioavailability. Baobab, moringa and hibiscus all were found to contain key phytochemical and polysaccharide components that could be leveraged as nutritional and function ingredients. The relatively higher levels of lutein (57 4.6 g/g), zeaxanthin (11 0.1g/g) and -carotene (20 2 g/g) in moringa leaf powder support the notion that this plant material can be used as a source of provitamin A and non-provitamin A carotenoids. Phenolic analysis revealed the presence of substantial amounts of flavan-3-ols (1234 16 mg/100g) in baobab, anthocyanins (2001 56 mg/100g) in hibiscus, and flavonols (5352 139 mg/100g) in moringa leaf powder. Polysaccharide analysis demonstrated that the primary monosaccharide in baobab was found to be xyloglucan (47 %) which is in agreement with the tentative identification Xyloglucans (hemicellulosic polysaccharide) based on linkage analysis. Hibiscus was found to contain similar amounts of xylose (20%) and galactose (27%) supporting the presence of similar proportions of xyloglucans and pectic polysaccharides (type I, type II AG, RG I). The main monosaccharide in moringa was found to be galactose (36%) followed by glucose (23%) and linkage analysis revealed the presence of high proportions of pectic polysaccharides (type I, type II AG, RG I). These results provide insight into presence of potential enhancer or inhibitors of target micronutrient (provitamin A carotenoids or iron/zinc) bioavailability when used as functional and nutritional food ingredients

    What is food-to-food fortification? A working definition and framework for evaluation of efficiency and implementation of best practices

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    Food-to-food fortification (FtFF) is an emerging food-based strategy that can complement current strategies in the ongoing fight against micronutrient deficiencies, but it has not been defined or characterized. This review has proposed a working definition of FtFF. Comparison with other main food-based strategies clearly differentiates FtFF as an emerging strategy with the potential to address multiple micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously, with little dietary change required by consumers. A review of literature revealed that despite the limited number of studies (in vitro and in vivo), the diversity of food-based fortificants investigated and some contradictory data, there are promising fortificants, which have the potential to improve the amount of bioavailable iron, zinc, and provitamin A from starchy staple foods. These fortificants are typically fruits and vegetables, with high mineral as well as ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents. However, as the observed improvements in micronutrient bioavailability and status are relatively small, measuring the positive outcomes is more likely to be impactful only if the FtFF products are consumed as regular staples. Considering best practices in implementation of FtFF, raw material authentication and ingredient documentation are critical, especially as the contents of target micronutrients and bioavailability modulators as well as the microbiological quality of the plant-based fortificants can vary substantially. Also, as there are only few developed supply chains for plant-based fortificants, procurement of consistent materials may be problematic. This, however, provides the opportunity for value chain development, which can contribute towards the economic growth of communities, or hybrid approaches that leverage traditional premixes to standardize product micronutrient content.The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Food Processing & Post Harvest Innovation Lab.http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/crf3pm2021Consumer ScienceFood Scienc

    Compositional analysis of phytochemicals and polysaccharides from Senegalese plant ingredients: Adansonia digitata (baobab), Moringa oleifera (moringa) and Hibsicus sabdariffa (hibiscus)

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    Certain indigenous African plant materials, including Adansonia digitata (baobab), Moringa oleifera (moringa), and Hibiscus sabdariffa (hibiscus) could be leveraged in food-to-food fortification strategies due to their high content of nutrients, dietary fiber, and phenolic compounds. However, more studies are needed to understand the nutritional composition of commercially available food ingredients. The objective of this study was to examine the phytochemical and polysaccharide compositions of commercially available baobab, moringa, and hibiscus ingredients from Senegal. Characterization of carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, monosaccharide composition, and glycosyl linkage was carried out. We observed that moringa contained the greatest content of carotenoids and tocopherols. Moringa also contained significant amounts of the flavonols quercetin 3-O-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, while baobab had greater concentrations of flavan-3-ols. Substantial content of anthocyanins was observed for hibiscus, but not moringa or baobab. The predominant monosaccharide in baobab was xylose, while hibiscus was a combination of xylose, galactose, and glucose. The primary monosaccharides in moringa were galactose and glucose. Based on our glycosyl linkage analysis, (1 → 2)- and (1 → 2,4)-linked rhamnose were attributed to rhamnogalacturonan-I, while (1 → 4)-linked glucose and (Terminal →)-linked xylose were attributed to xyloglucans. The phytochemical and polysaccharide characterization of baobab, moringa, and hibiscus suggested that delivery of micronutrients, such as iron and carotenoids, could be impacted when applied as functional food ingredients

    Mixed Berry Juice and Cellulose Fiber Have Differential Effects on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Respiration in Overweight Adults

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    Berries and other anthocyanin-rich foods have demonstrated anti-obesity effects in rodents and humans. However, the bioactive components of these foods and their mechanisms of action are unclear. We conducted an intervention study with overweight and obese adults to isolate the effects of different berry components on bioenergetics. Subjects consumed whole mixed berries (high anthocyanin, high fiber), pressed berry juice (high anthocyanin, low fiber), berry-flavored gelatin (low anthocyanin, low fiber), or fiber-enriched gelatin (low anthocyanin, high fiber) for one week prior to a meal challenge with the same treatment food as the pre-feed period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected 2 h after the meal challenge, and cellular respiration was assessed via high-resolution respirometry. The high-anthocyanin, low-fiber treatment (berry juice) and the low-anthocyanin, high-fiber treatment (fiber-enriched gelatin) had opposite effects on cellular respiration. In the fasted state, berry juice resulted in the highest oxygen-consumption rate (OCR), while fiber-enriched gelatin resulted in the highest OCR in the fed state. Differences were observed in multiple respiration states (basal, state 3, state 4, uncoupled), with the greatest differences being between the pressed berry juice and the fiber-enriched gelatin. Different components of berries, specifically anthocyanins/flavonoids and fiber, appear to have differential effects on cellular respiration

    An Anthocyanin-Rich Mixed-Berry Intervention May Improve Insulin Sensitivity in a Randomized Trial of Overweight and Obese Adults

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    Evidence supports the beneficial effects of berries on glucoregulation, possibly related to flavonoid content, fiber content, or both. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of mixed berries to improve insulin sensitivity and to identify the potential role of flavonoids and fiber. In a randomized cross-over trial with four treatment periods, overweight/obese men and women were fed a controlled 45% fat diet for one week prior to a meal-based glucose tolerance test. The same base diet was provided during each feeding period with the addition of one of four treatments: whole mixed berries, sugar matched mixed berry juice, sugar matched gelatin, and sugar/fiber matched gelatin. Subjects then completed a meal-based oral glucose tolerance test. Serum glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids were not different between individual treatments. However, in a secondary analysis, the combined berry preparations resulted in a lower serum insulin area under the curve (difference of 0.15 &plusmn; 0.066 ln pmol min/mL, mean &plusmn; SE, p = 0.0228), compared to the combined gelatin treatments, while the difference for serum glucose did not quite meet statistical significance (difference of 0.17 &plusmn; 0.093 ln mg&middot;min/dL, mean &plusmn; SE, p = 0.0738). These results suggest the potential for mixed berry preparations to improve post-prandial insulin response