221 research outputs found

    Food Strategy Formulation and Development Planning in Ethiopia

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    Summary The paper describes the preparation and major features of the National Food and Nutrition Strategy for Ethiopia; and discusses current policy issues, including the impact of the liberalisation announced in March 1990. The country produces only 70 per cent of food requirements and has at least 9m food insecure people. The NFNS addresses these problems with a conservation?based strategy to increase production and marketed surplus in high potential as well as food deficit areas. Population growth, environmental pressure and the risks of input?intensive growth packages are the main issues of concern. The abolition of producer grain quotas may also be inflationary if urban price subsidies are to be maintained

    A Theoretical Framework For Data?Economising Appraisal Procedures, with Applications to Rural Development Planning

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    SUMMARY The objective of the paper is to construct a general framework which will help to increase the usefulness and reduce the cost of collecting data for public decision?making about development in low?income countries. Data required about the rural sector are usually considerable and relatively costly to obtain; this area receives particular attention. The search for useful principles proceeds from the economics of information via Karl Popper's principle of error reduction and the use of information cybernetics in public decision?making to the design of more cost?effective models of development processes and the significance of alternative hierarchical administrative structures for the utility obtained from primary data. These components are combined into a unified logical framework. An integrated approach to management information is identified as a desirable adjunct for its application in practice. RESUMEN Un marco teórico para los procedimientos de evaluación con economí de datos y algunas aplicaciones a la planificación del desarrollo rural El propósito de esta disertación es el de construir un marco general que ayude a aumentar la utilidad y reducir los costos relativos a la reunión de datos de información, con vistas a la toma de decisiones de carácter público, en lo tocante al desarrollo de los países con pocos ingresos. Habitualmente, los datos que se necesitan para informarse acerca del sector rural son muy abundantes pero relativamente caros de obtener; éste es un aspecto que recibe particular atención. A continuación, se buscan principios de útil aplicación, comenzando por el de economía de la información, el de reducción de errores de Karl Popper y el empleo de la informática en la toma de decisiones en el sector público, seguidos por el planteamiento de modelos de procesos de desarrollo más eficaces en cuanto a costos y por la importancia que pudieran tener unas estructuras administrativas jerárquicas de carácter diferente para la utilidad que se obtuviese de los datos primarios. Todos estos elementos están combinados dentro de un marco lógico unificado. Se saca la conclusión de que un estudio bien integrado de las informaciones que llegan a los puestos directivos es un complemento muy deseable para la puesta en práctica. RESUME Cadre théorique des procédures d'évaluation exigeant un recueil minimum de données, avec applications à la planification du développement rural Cet article a pour objet d'élaborer un cadre général qui contribuera à accroître l'utilité et à réduire le coût du recueil des données préalable aux prises de décisions officielles sur le développement dans les pays à faibles revenus. Il faut généralement de très nombreuses données pour le secteur rural, qui sont onéreuses à recueillir. Cet aspect est étudié. La recherche de principes utiles dégage diverses approches: économie de l'information, principe de la réduction des erreurs établi par Karl Popper, recours à la cybernétique de l'information en vue des prises de décisions officielles, mise au point de modèles de développement plus rentables, et valeur des structures administratives hiérarchiques alternatives pour l'emploi des données primaires. Ces éléments constituent ensemble un cadre logique unifié, auquel on peut ajouter, dans son application pratique, une conception intégrée de l'information d'organisation de la gestion

    The Influence of Stock Surface Properties on Grease Resistant Films

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    Introduction One of the main problems in applying a continuous film to a fibrous surface such as paper is that coating must cover fibers that lie in every direction. This produces a relatively rough mat, with some fibers protruding. The surface of paper varies, but all papers and board have a surface configuration resembling a range of mountains. In paper, the interstices can be loaded with fillers, but with boards, fillers are not practical due to the amount necessary. Thus, in coating board with a continuous film, the surface configuration of the board is this main determining factor of the amount of coating necessary. Calendar treatment of board will tend to flatten the tops of the sharp peaks, but the stray fibers sticking up will not be decreased materially. To correctly balance the continuity and adhesion of a film with the surface configuration of the sheet to which it is applied is the problem of the grease resistant paper manufacturer

    PIM: a practical management system for implementing rural development programmes and projects

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    This paper describes the origins and operation of a management system for implementing rural development programmes and projects. The system has been developed from elements from several sources, including network analysis, Management by Objectives, and the Malaysian Red Book system. Simplifications have been continually introduced during testing. Independent evaluations of the system have found that it sharpens government implementation of projects and programmes in rural areas. The system has three main parts: an Annual Programming Exercise in which those responsible for implementation jointly plan how it shall be carried out; a Monthly Management Meeting which receives reports on progress and decides on who shall do what, how and by when; and a Monthly Management Report, distributed to those whose action is required, sent out shortly after the meeting. The system has operated in the Kenya Special Rural Development Programme for eighteen months. With minor adaptation it appears replicable within Kenya in connection with district planning. In Kenya and in other countries, it could be used to improve implementation of a wide variety of rural development programmes and projects. It might be particularly effective in Tanzania as a system for operation by the District Development Directors

    A management systems approach to rural development

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    Past failures to plan rural planning, planners' relative neglect of recurrent resource management, and the underutilised capacity of government field staff all support the case for increased attention to be given to management procedures in rural development. A simple systems presentation is used to set out a rural plan management system with six component systems: Programming and Implementation Management Field Staff Management Local Participation Procedures Evaluation Review Sequence Rural Research and Development Plan Formulation Procedures Management procedures for these six systems either have been or are being developed and tested in the Kenya Government's Special Rural Development Programme. They are described in turn. Choices and principles in system design and in replication both within Kenya and in other countries are discussed. The most important single conclusion is that public sector performance in rural development is most likely to be improved initially through attention to programming, implementation and monitoring, with later gradual extension through evaluation to plan formulation

    A hierarchical systems formulation of the rural development process in developing countries

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    A very urgent and significant set of problems facing developing countries arises in the area of rural development. The reasons for this are that the majority of the populations of these countries lives in the rural areas and the fact that the level of production in the rural areas has a major effect on the overall economy of the developing countries. In this paper hierarchical systems theory is applied to rural development. The latter is complex in the sense that it is multidimensional, highly interacting and stochastic in nature, whilst reliable causal explanations of its socio-economic aspects in particular are commonly not availables Here a multilevel/hierarchical formulation of the rural development system is presented and analysed to provide an improved conceptual framework for the design, phasing and inter-connection of component management procedures which together comprise an effective rural development planning and control system. This analysis has been applied to design an initial set of procedures which have been introduced and tested in six rural areas of Kenya. These provide at the first level a short cycle of one month for plan implementation and at the second level a medium cycle of one year for plan reformulation. These and further procedural components are being considered for replication in all rural areas of Kenya as an integral part of the introduction of district level development plans in the context of the third five year plan (1974-79). Although the main benefits arising from the application of systems analysis to date have been at the level of procedural and institutional innovation,the multilevel/hierarchical formulation described in this paper now lays a foundation for a more quantitative approach based on systematic assembly of data describing the operation of the rural development system. ventually, simulation studies using sophisticated planning models will enable a more efficient selection between alternative rural development strategies, projects and programmes

    Participant- and disease-related factors as independent predictors of treatment outcomes in the RESTORE-IMI 2 clinical trial: A multivariable regression analysis

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    BACKGROUND: In the RESTORE-IMI 2 trial, imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam (IMI/REL) was noninferior to piperacillin/tazobactam in treating hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia. This post hoc analysis was conducted to determine independent predictors of efficacy outcomes in the RESTORE-IMI 2 trial, to assist in treatment decision making. METHODS: A stepwise multivariable regression analysis was conducted to identify variables that were independently associated with day 28 all-cause mortality (ACM), favorable clinical response at early follow-up (EFU), and favorable microbiologic response at end of treatment (EOT). The analysis accounted for the number of baseline infecting pathogens and in vitro susceptibility to randomized treatment. RESULTS: Vasopressor use, renal impairment, bacteremia at baseline, and Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores ≥15 were associated with a greater risk of day 28 ACM. A favorable clinical response at EFU was associated with normal renal function, an APACHE II score \u3c15, no vasopressor use, and no bacteremia at baseline. At EOT, a favorable microbiologic response was associated with IMI/REL treatment, normal renal function, no vasopressor use, nonventilated pneumonia at baseline, intensive care unit admission at randomization, monomicrobial infections at baseline, and absence of CONCLUSIONS: This analysis, which accounted for baseline pathogen susceptibility, validated well-recognized patient- and disease-related factors as independent predictors of clinical outcomes. These results lend further support to the noninferiority of IMI/REL to piperacillin/tazobactam and suggests that pathogen eradication may be more likely with IMI/REL. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02493764

    Population pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulfonate and formed colistin in critically ill patients from a multicenter study provide dosing suggestions for various categories of patients

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    With increasing clinical emergence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens and the paucity of new agents to combat these infections, colistin (administered as its inactive prodrug colistin methane-sulfonate [CMS]) has reemerged as a treatment option, especially for critically ill patients. There has been a dearth of pharmacokinetic (PK) data available to guide dosing in critically ill patients, including those on renal replacement therapy. In an ongoing study to develop a population PK model for CMS and colistin, 105 patients have been studied to date; these included 12 patients on hemodialysis and 4 on continuous renal replacement therapy. For patients not on renal replacement, there was a wide variance in creatinine clearance, ranging from 3 to 169 ml/min/1.73 m 2. Each patient was treated with a physician-selected CMS dosage regimen, and 8 blood samples for PK analysis were collected across a dosage interval on day 3 or 4 of therapy. A linear PK model with two compartments for CMS and one compartment for formed colistin best described the data. Covariates included creatinine clearance on the total clearance of CMS and colistin, as well as body weight on the central volume of CMS. Model-fitted parameter estimates were used to derive suggested loading and maintenance dosing regimens for various categories of patients, including those on hemodialysis and continuous renal replacement. Based on our current understanding of colistin PK and pharmacodynamic relationships, colistin may best be used as part of a highly active combination, especially for patients with moderate to good renal function and/or for organisms with MICs of ≥1.0 mg/liter

    Renal and neurological side effects of colistin in critically ill patients

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    Colistin is a complex polypeptide antibiotic composed mainly of colistin A and B. It was abandoned from clinical use in the 1970s because of significant renal and, to a lesser extent, neurological toxicity. Actually, colistin is increasingly put forward as salvage or even first-line treatment for severe multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections, particularly in the intensive care setting. We reviewed the most recent literature on colistin treatment, focusing on efficacy and toxicity issues. The method used for literature search was based on a PubMed retrieval using very precise criteria
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