942 research outputs found

    Dynamic fibrils in H-alpha and C IV

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    Aim: To study the interaction of the solar chromosphere with the transition region, in particular active-region jets in the transition region and their relation to chromospheric fibrils. Methods: We carefully align image sequences taken simultaneously in C IV with the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and in H-alpha with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. We examine the temporal evolution of "dynamic fibrils", i.e., individual short-lived active-region chromospheric jet-like features in H-alpha. Results: All dynamic fibrils appear as absorption features in H-alpha that progress from the blue to the red wing through the line, and often show recurrent behavior. Some of them, but not all, appear also as bright features in C IV which develop at or just beyond the apex of the H-alpha darkening. They tend to best resemble the H-alpha fibril at +700 mA half a minute earlier. Conclusions: Dynamic chromospheric fibrils observed in H-alpha regularly correspond to transition-region jets observed in the ultraviolet. This correspondence suggests that some plasma associated with dynamic fibrils is heated to transition-region temperatures.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figure

    Ubiquitous High Speed Transition Region and Coronal Upflows in the Quiet Sun

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    We study the line profiles of a range of transition region (TR) emission lines observed in typical quiet Sun regions. In magnetic network regions, the Si IV 1402\AA{}, C IV 1548\AA{}, N V 1238\AA{}, O VI 1031\AA{}, and Ne VIII 770\AA{} spectral lines show significant asymmetry in the blue wing of the emission line profiles. We interpret these high-velocity upflows in the lower and upper TR as the quiet Sun equivalent of the recently discovered upflows in the low corona above plage regions (Hara et al., 2008). The latter have been shown to be directly associated with high-velocity chromospheric spicules that are (partially) heated to coronal temperatures and play a significant role in supplying the active region corona with hot plasma (DePontieu et al., 2009}. We show that a similar process likely dominates the quiet Sun network. We provide a new interpretation of the observed quiet Sun TR emission in terms of the relentless mass transport between the chromosphere and corona - a mixture of emission from dynamic episodic heating and mass injection into the corona as well as that from the previously filled, slowly cooling, coronal plasma. Analysis of the observed upflow component shows that it carries enough hot plasma to play a significant role in the energy and mass balance of the quiet corona. We determine the temperature dependence of the upflow velocities to constrain the acceleration and heating mechanism that drives these upflows. We also show that the temporal characteristics of these upflows suggest an episodic driver that sometimes leads to quasi-periodic signals. We suggest that at least some of the quasi-periodicities observed with coronal imagers and spectrographs that have previously been interpreted as propagating magnetoacoustic waves, may instead be caused by these upflows.Comment: 10 pages, 15 figures. In press ApJ. Higher resolution figures, and movies supporting them, can be found at http://download.hao.ucar.edu/pub/mscott/papers/QS

    Chromospheric jets around the edges of sunspots

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    Aims. Evidence is beginning to be put forward that demonstrates the role of the chromosphere in supplying energy and mass to the corona. We aim to asses the role of chromospheric jets in active region dynamics. Methods. Using a combination of the Hinode/SOT Ca II H and TRACE 1550 √Ö and 1600 √Ö Ô¨Ālters we examine chromospheric jets situated at the edge of a sunspot. Results. Analysis reveals a near continuous series of jets, that raise chromospheric material into the low corona above a sunspot. The jets have average rise speeds of 30 km/s and a range of 10‚ąí100 km/s. Enhanced emission observed at the jets leading edge suggests the formation of a shock front. Increased emission in TRACE bandpasses above the sunspot and the disappearance of the jets from the Ca II Ô¨Ālter suggests that some of the chromospheric jet material is at least heated to ‚ąľ 0.1 MK. The evidence suggests that the jets could be a mechanism which provides a steady, low-level heating for active region features

    Quasi-periodic Propagating Signals in the Solar Corona: The Signature of Magnetoacoustic Waves or High-Velocity Upflows?

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    Since the discovery of quasi-periodic propagating oscillations with periods of order three to ten minutes in coronal loops with TRACE and EIT (later with EUVI and EIS), they have been almost universally interpreted as evidence for propagating slow-mode magnetoacoustic (MA) waves in the low-beta coronal environment. We show that this interpretation is not unique. We focus instead on the ubiquitous faint upflows, associated with blue asymmetries of spectral line profiles in footpoint regions of coronal loops, and as faint disturbances propagating along coronal loops in EUV/XR imaging timeseries. The two scenarios are difficult to differentiate using only imaging data, but careful analysis of spectral line profiles indicates that faint upflows are likely responsible for some of the observed quasi-periodic oscillatory signals in the corona. We show that EIS measurements of intensity and velocity oscillations in coronal lines (previously interpreted as direct evidence for propagating waves) are actually accompanied by significant oscillations in the line width that are driven by a quasi-periodically varying component of emission in the blue wing of the line. The faint blue-shifted emission component quasi-periodically modulates the peak intensity and line-centroid of a single Gaussian fit to the profile with the same small amplitudes (respectively a few percent of background intensity, and a few km/s) used to infer the presence of MA waves. Our results indicate that a significant fraction of the quasi-periodicities observed with coronal imagers and spectrographs, previously interpreted as propagating MA waves, are caused by these upflows. The different physical cause for coronal oscillations would significantly impact the prospects of successful coronal seismology using propagating disturbances in coronal loops.Comment: To appear Astrophysical Journal. 14 pages, 13 color figures, 4 movies. High resolution figures and online supporting movies are available at http://tinyurl.com/29s7c4

    On The Doppler Velocity of Emission Line Profiles Formed in the "Coronal Contraflow" that is the Chromosphere-Corona Mass Cycle

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    This analysis begins to explore the complex chromosphere-corona mass cycle using a blend of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics. Single Gaussian fits to hot emission line profiles (formed above 1MK) at the base of coronal loop structures indicate material blue-shifts of 5-10km/s while cool emission line profiles (formed below 1MK) yield red-shifts of a similar magnitude - indicating, to zeroth order, that a temperature-dependent bifurcating flow exists on coronal structures. Image sequences of the same region reveal weakly emitting upward propagating disturbances in both hot and cool emission with apparent speeds of 50-150km/s. Spectroscopic observations indicate that these propagating disturbances produce a weak emission component in the blue wing at commensurate speed, but that they contribute only a few percent to the (ensemble) emission line profile in a single spatio-temporal resolution element. Subsequent analysis of imaging data shows material "draining" slowly (~10km/s) out of the corona, but only in the cooler passbands. We interpret the draining as the return-flow of coronal material at the end of the complex chromosphere-corona mass cycle. Further, we suggest that the efficient radiative cooling of the draining material produces a significant contribution to the red wing of cool emission lines that is ultimately responsible for their systematic red-shift as derived from a single Gaussian fit when compared to those formed in hotter (conductively dominated) domains. The presence of counter-streaming flows complicates the line profiles, their interpretation, and asymmetry diagnoses, but allows a different physical picture of the lower corona to develop.Comment: 7 pages, 5 color figures. Accepted to Appear Ap

    Dynamic Ly alpha jets

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    The solar chromosphere and transition region are highly structured and complex regimes. A recent breakthrough has been the identification of dynamic fibrils observed in H alpha as caused by field-aligned magnetoacoustic shocks. We seek to find whether such dynamic fibrils are also observed in Ly alpha. We used a brief sequence of four high-resolution Ly alpha images of the solar limb taken by the Very high Angular resolution ULtraviolet Telescope (VAULT), which displays many extending and retracting Ly alpha jets. We measured their top trajectories and fitted parabolas to the 30 best-defined ones. Most jet tops move supersonically. Half of them decelerate, sometimes superballistically, the others accelerate. This bifurcation may arise from incomplete sampling of recurrent jets. The similarities between dynamic Ly alpha jets and H alpha fibrils suggest that the magnetoacoustic shocks causing dynamic H alpha fibrils also affect dynamic Ly alpha jets.Comment: 5 pages, 7 figures; changed title and content; accepted in Astronomy and Astrophysics; eps figures in full resolution are available at http://www.astro.sk/~koza/publications/vault/figs

    Observations of a pulse driven cool polar jet by SDO/AIA

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    Context. We observe a solar jet at north polar coronal hole (NPCH) using SDO AIA 304 {\deg}A image data on 3 August 2010. The jet rises obliquely above the solar limb and then retraces its propagation path to fall back. Aims. We numerically model this observed solar jet by implementing a realistic (VAL-C) model of solar temperature. Methods. We solve two-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations numerically to simulate the observed solar jet. We consider a localized velocity pulse that is essentially parallel to the background magnetic field lines and initially launched at the top of the solar photosphere. The pulse steepens into a shock at higher altitudes, which triggers plasma perturbations that exhibit the observed features of the jet. The typical direction of the pulse also clearly exhibits the leading front of the moving jet. Results. Our numerical simulations reveal that a large amplitude initial velocity pulse launched at the top of the solar photosphere produces in general the observed properties of the jet, e.g., upward and backward average velocities, height, width, life-time, and ballistic nature. Conclusions. The close matching between the jet observations and numerical simulations provides first strong evidence for the formation of this jet by a single velocity pulse. The strong velocity pulse is most likely generated by the low- atmospheric reconnection in the polar region which results in triggering of the jet. The downflowing material of the jet most likely vanishes in the next upcoming velocity pulses from lower solar atmosphere, and therefore distinctly launched a single jet upward in the solar atmosphere is observed.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, A&

    What do iris observations of Mg II k tell us about the solar plage chromosphere?

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    We analyze observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph of the Mg II k line, the Mg II UV subordinate lines, and the O I 135.6 nm line to better understand the solar plage chromosphere. We also make comparisons with observations from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope of the H{\alpha} line, the Ca II 8542 line, and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of the coronal 19.3 nm line. To understand the observed Mg II profiles, we compare these observations to the results of numerical experiments. The single-peaked or flat-topped Mg II k profiles found in plage imply a transition region at a high column mass and a hot and dense chromosphere of about 6500 K. This scenario is supported by the observed large-scale correlation between moss brightness and filled-in profiles with very little or absent self-reversal. The large wing width found in plage also implies a hot and dense chromosphere with a steep chromospheric temperature rise. The absence of emission in the Mg II subordinate lines constrain the chromospheric temperature and the height of the temperature rise while the width of the O I 135.6 nm line sets a limit to the non-thermal velocities to around 7 km/s

    Spicule-like structures observed in 3D realistic MHD simulations

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    We analyze features that resemble type i spicules in two different 3D numerical simulations in which we include horizontal magnetic flux emergence in a computational domain spanning the upper layers of the convection zone to the lower corona. The two simulations differ mainly in the preexisting ambient magnetic field strength and in the properties of the inserted flux tube. We use the Oslo Staggered Code (OSC) to solve the full MHD equations with non-grey and non-LTE radiative transfer and thermal conduction along the magnetic field lines. We find a multitude of features that show a spatiotemporal evolution that is similar to that observed in type i spicules, which are characterized by parabolic height vs. time profiles, and are dominated by rapid upward motion at speeds of 10-30 km/s, followed by downward motion at similar velocities. We measured the parameters of the parabolic profile of the spicules and find similar correlations between the parameters as those found in observations. The values for height (or length) and duration of the spicules found in the simulations are more limited in range than those in the observations. The spicules found in the simulation with higher preexisting ambient field have shorter length and smaller velocities. From the simulations, it appears that these kinds of spicules can, in principle, be driven by a variety of mechanisms that include p-modes, collapsing granules, magnetic energy release in the photosphere and lower chromosphere and convective buffeting of flux concentrations.Comment: 31 pages, 9 figures. accepted the 23 of June in Ap
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