119 research outputs found

    Intersex occurrence in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) male fry chronically exposed to ethynylestradiol.

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    This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization--dpf) to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 ”g/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 ”g/L) of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms). Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 ”g EE2/L) and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 ”g EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b) with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes

    Adaptation of a bioinformatics microarray analysis workflow for a toxicogenomic study in rainbow trout

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    Sex steroids play a key role in triggering sex differentiation in fish, the use of exogenous hormone treatment leading to partial or complete sex reversal. This phenomenon has attracted attention since the discovery that even low environmental doses of exogenous steroids can adversely affect gonad morphology (ovotestis development) and induce reproductive failure. Modern genomic-based technologies have enhanced opportunities to find out mechanisms of actions (MOA) and identify biomarkers related to the toxic action of a compound. However, high throughput data interpretation relies on statistical analysis, species genomic resources, and bioinformatics tools. The goals of this study are to improve the knowledge of feminisation in fish, by the analysis of molecular responses in the gonads of rainbow trout fry after chronic exposure to several doses (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 ÎŒg/L) of ethynylestradiol (EE2) and to offer target genes as potential biomarkers of ovotestis development. We successfully adapted a bioinformatics microarray analysis workflow elaborated on human data to a toxicogenomic study using rainbow trout, a fish species lacking accurate functional annotation and genomic resources. The workflow allowed to obtain lists of genes supposed to be enriched in true positive differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were subjected to over-representation analysis methods (ORA). Several pathways and ontologies, mostly related to cell division and metabolism, sexual reproduction and steroid production, were found significantly enriched in our analyses. Moreover, two sets of potential ovotestis biomarkers were selected using several criteria. The first group displayed specific potential biomarkers belonging to pathways/ontologies highlighted in the experiment. Among them, the early ovarian differentiation gene foxl2a was overexpressed. The second group, which was highly sensitive but not specific, included the DEGs presenting the highest fold change and lowest p-value of the statistical workflow output. The methodology can be generalized to other (non-model) species and various types of microarray platforms

    Meta-analysis of microarray data of rainbow trout fry gonad differentiation modulated by ethynylestradiol

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    Sex differentiation in fish is a highly labile process easily reversed by the use of exogenous hormonal treatment and has led to environmental concerns since low doses of estrogenic molecules can adversely impact fish reproduction. The goal of this study was to identify pathways altered by treatment with ethynylestradiol (EE2) in developing fish and to find new target genes to be tested further for their possible role in male-to-female sex transdifferentiation. To this end, we have successfully adapted a previously developed bioinformatics workflow to a meta-analysis of two datasets studying sex reversal following exposure to EE2 in juvenile rainbow trout. The meta-analysis consisted of retrieving the intersection of the top gene lists generated for both datasets, performed at different levels of stringency. The intersecting gene lists, enriched in true positive differentially expressed genes (DEGs), were subjected to over-representation analysis (ORA) which allowed identifying several statistically significant enriched pathways altered by EE2 treatment and several new candidate pathways, such as progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation and PPAR signalling. Moreover, several relevant key genes potentially implicated in the early transdifferentiation process were selected. Altogether, the results show that EE2 has a great effect on gene expression in juvenile rainbow trout. The feminization process seems to result from the altered transcription of genes implicated in normal female gonad differentiation, resulting in expression similar to that observed in normal females (i.e. the repression of key testicular markers cyp17a1, cyp11b, tbx1), as well as from other genes (including transcription factors) that respond specifically to the EE2 treatment. The results also showed that the bioinformatics workflow can be applied to different types of microarray platforms and could be generalized to (eco)toxicogenomics studies for environmental risk assessment purposes

    Unanswered questions in prostate cancer : Findings of an international multi-stakeholder consensus by the PIONEER Consortium

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    Acknowledgements PIONEER is funded through the IMI2 Joint Undertaking and is listed under grant agreement No. 777492. This joint under- taking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and EFPIA.Peer reviewedPostprin

    gViz, a novel tool for the visualization of co-expression networks

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The quantity of microarray data available on the Internet has grown dramatically over the past years and now represents millions of Euros worth of underused information. One way to use this data is through co-expression analysis. To avoid a certain amount of bias, such data must often be analyzed at the genome scale, for example by network representation. The identification of co-expression networks is an important means to unravel gene to gene interactions and the underlying functional relationship between them. However, it is very difficult to explore and analyze a network of such dimensions. Several programs (Cytoscape, yEd) have already been developed for network analysis; however, to our knowledge, there are no available GraphML compatible programs.</p> <p>Findings</p> <p>We designed and developed gViz, a GraphML network visualization and exploration tool. gViz is built on clustering coefficient-based algorithms and is a novel tool to visualize and manipulate networks of co-expression interactions among a selection of probesets (each representing a single gene or transcript), based on a set of microarray co-expression data stored as an adjacency matrix.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We present here gViz, a software tool designed to visualize and explore large GraphML networks, combining network theory, biological annotation data, microarray data analysis and advanced graphical features.</p

    Host Transcription Profile in Nasal Epithelium and Whole Blood of Hospitalized Children Under 2 Years of Age With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

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    BACKGROUND: Most insights into the cascade of immune events after acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been obtained from animal experiments or in vitro models. METHODS: In this study, we investigated host gene expression profiles in nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and whole blood samples during natural RSV and rhinovirus (hRV) infection (acute versus early recovery phase) in 83 hospitalized patients <2 years old with lower respiratory tract infections. RESULTS: Respiratory syncytial virus infection induced strong and persistent innate immune responses including interferon signaling and pathways related to chemokine/cytokine signaling in both compartments. Interferon-α/ÎČ, NOTCH1 signaling pathways and potential biomarkers HIST1H4E, IL7R, ISG15 in NP samples, or BCL6, HIST2H2AC, CCNA1 in blood are leading pathways and hub genes that were associated with both RSV load and severity. The observed RSV-induced gene expression patterns did not differ significantly in NP swab and blood specimens. In contrast, hRV infection did not as strongly induce expression of innate immunity pathways, and significant differences were observed between NP swab and blood specimens. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that RSV induced strong and persistent innate immune responses and that RSV severity may be related to development of T follicular helper cells and antiviral inflammatory sequelae derived from high activation of BCL6