54,763 research outputs found

    Are Hispanics Discriminated Against in the US Criminal Justice System?

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    Recent publications have contributed to increase the perception among Hispanics of an unfair and unequal treatment of this community by the US Criminal Justice System. One of the major concerns was the claim that Hispanics are incarcerated before conviction nearly twice as often as Whites. Unfair treatment perception by the population reduces legitimacy of police and government, and thus, it is imperative to analyze these uninvestigated allegations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to address said allegations of discrimination against Hispanics and analyze with updated and reliable statistics whether Hispanics are incarcerated before conviction more often than Whites. There has been much research exploring the effects of race and ethnicity in the US criminal justice system, however most of it is focused on African Americans but not Hispanics although it is the largest and fastest growing minority in the United States. The present study is based on data collected in the Annual Survey of Jails, 2014 prepared by the Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice. Starting in 2010, the Bureau of Justice Statistics improved the Annual Survey of Jails survey instruments to address certain topics, among others, the number of inmates that are unsentenced. Therefore this allows for the first time to obtain such information with reliable data and not based on a sample survey estimation. From the regression analysis of the data of this study, it resulted that the model accounted for 77% of the explanation of the relationship between the possibility of being incarcerated without conviction in a US jail and the fact of being Hispanic. However, this relationship was not statistically significant when controlling for age and gender. The Level of confidence in this study was 95%.https://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/gradposters/1019/thumbnail.jp

    Surface Plasmon Excitation of Second Harmonic light: Emission and Absorption

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    We aim to clarify the role that absorption plays in nonlinear optical processes in a variety of metallic nanostructures and show how it relates to emission and conversion efficiency. We define a figure of merit that establishes the structure's ability to either favor or impede second harmonic generation. Our findings suggest that, despite the best efforts embarked upon to enhance local fields and light coupling via plasmon excitation, nearly always the absorbed harmonic energy far surpasses the harmonic energy emitted in the far field. Qualitative and quantitative understanding of absorption processes is crucial in the evaluation of practical designs of plasmonic nanostructures for the purpose of frequency mixing

    Maxima of the Q-index: forbidden 4-cycle and 5-cycle

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    This paper gives tight upper bounds on the largest eigenvalue q(G) of the signless Laplacian of graphs with no 4-cycle and no 5-cycle. If n is odd, let F_{n} be the friendship graph of order n; if n is even, let F_{n} be F_{n-1} with an edge hanged to its center. It is shown that if G is a graph of order n, with no 4-cycle, then q(G)<q(F_{n}), unless G=F_{n}. Let S_{n,k} be the join of a complete graph of order k and an independent set of order n-k. It is shown that if G is a graph of order n, with no 5-cycle, then q(G)<q(S_{n,2}), unless G=S_{n,k}. It is shown that these results are significant in spectral extremal graph problems. Two conjectures are formulated for the maximum q(G) of graphs with forbidden cycles.Comment: 12 page

    Non equilibrium stationary state for the SEP with births and deaths

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    We consider the symmetric simple exclusion process in the interval \La_N:=[-N,N]\cap\mathbb Z with births and deaths taking place respectively on suitable boundary intervals I+I_+ and II_-, as introduced in De Masi et al. (J. Stat. Phys. 2011). We study the stationary measure density profile in the limit $N\to\infty

    Dark Monopoles in Grand Unified Theories

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    We consider a Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with gauge group G=SU(n)G=SU(n) broken to Gv=[SU(p)×SU(np)×U(1)]/ZG_{v} = [SU(p)\times SU(n-p)\times U(1)]/Z by a Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We obtain monopole solutions whose magnetic field is not in the Cartan Subalgebra. Since their magnetic field vanishes in the direction of the generator of the electromagnetic group U(1)emU(1)_{em}, we call them Dark Monopoles. These Dark Monopoles must exist in some Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) without the need to introduce a dark sector. We analyze the particular case of SU(5)SU(5) GUT, where we obtain that their mass is M=4πvE~(λ/e2)/eM = 4\pi v \widetilde{E}(\lambda/e^{2})/e, where E~(λ/e2)\widetilde{E}(\lambda/e^{2}) is a monotonically increasing function of λ/e2\lambda/e^{2} with E~(0)=1.294\widetilde{E}(0)=1.294 and E~()=3.262.\widetilde{E}(\infty)=3.262. We also give a geometrical interpretation to their non-abelian magnetic charge.Comment: 22 pages; added some comments on possible cosmological implications of Dark Monopoles in the last section and added some references. Published Versio

    A Bag-of-Tasks Scheduler Tolerant to Temporal Failures in Clouds

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    Cloud platforms have emerged as a prominent environment to execute high performance computing (HPC) applications providing on-demand resources as well as scalability. They usually offer different classes of Virtual Machines (VMs) which ensure different guarantees in terms of availability and volatility, provisioning the same resource through multiple pricing models. For instance, in Amazon EC2 cloud, the user pays per hour for on-demand VMs while spot VMs are unused instances available for lower price. Despite the monetary advantages, a spot VM can be terminated, stopped, or hibernated by EC2 at any moment. Using both hibernation-prone spot VMs (for cost sake) and on-demand VMs, we propose in this paper a static scheduling for HPC applications which are composed by independent tasks (bag-of-task) with deadline constraints. However, if a spot VM hibernates and it does not resume within a time which guarantees the application's deadline, a temporal failure takes place. Our scheduling, thus, aims at minimizing monetary costs of bag-of-tasks applications in EC2 cloud, respecting its deadline and avoiding temporal failures. To this end, our algorithm statically creates two scheduling maps: (i) the first one contains, for each task, its starting time and on which VM (i.e., an available spot or on-demand VM with the current lowest price) the task should execute; (ii) the second one contains, for each task allocated on a VM spot in the first map, its starting time and on which on-demand VM it should be executed to meet the application deadline in order to avoid temporal failures. The latter will be used whenever the hibernation period of a spot VM exceeds a time limit. Performance results from simulation with task execution traces, configuration of Amazon EC2 VM classes, and VMs market history confirms the effectiveness of our scheduling and that it tolerates temporal failures