164 research outputs found

    Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase is present in the mitoplasts

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    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the Lysine-acetyltransferase Gcn5 (KAT2) is part of the SAGA complex and is responsible for histone acetylation widely or at specific lysines. In this paper we report that GCN5 deletion differently affects the growth of two strains. The defective mitochondrial phenotype is related to a marked decrease in mtDNA content, which also involves the deletion of specific regions of the molecule. We also show that in wild-type mitochondria the Gcn5 protein is present in the mitoplasts, suggesting a new mitochondrial function independent from the SAGA complex and possibly a new function for this protein connecting epigenetics and metabolism

    Role of yUbp8 in Mitochondria and Hypoxia Entangles the Finding of Human Ortholog Usp22 in the Glioblastoma Pseudo-Palisade Microlayer

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    KAT Gcn5 and DUB Ubp8 are required for respiration and mitochondria functions in budding yeast, and in this study we show that loss of respiratory activity is acquired over time. Interestingly, we show that absence of Ubp8 allows cells to grow in hypoxic conditions with altered mitophagy. Comparatively, the aggressive glioblastoma (GBM) multiforme tumor shows survival mechanisms able to overcome hypoxia in the brain. Starting from yeast and our findings on the role of Ubp8 in hypoxia, we extended our analysis to the human ortholog and signature cancer gene Usp22 in glioblastoma tumor specimens. Here we demonstrate that Usp22 is localized and overexpressed in the pseudo-palisade tissue around the necrotic area of the tumor. In addition, Usp22 colocalizes with the mitophagy marker Parkin, indicating a link with mitochondria function in GBM. Collectively, this evidence suggests that altered expression of Usp22 might provide a way for tumor cells to survive in hypoxic conditions, allowing the escape of cells from the necrotic area toward vascularized tissues. Collectively, our experimental data suggest a model for a possible mechanism of uncontrolled proliferation and invasion in glioblastoma

    Multi-Gene Next-Generation Sequencing Panel for Analysis of BRCA1/BRCA2 and Homologous Recombination Repair Genes Alterations Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

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    : Despite significant therapeutic advances, metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) remains a lethal disease. Mutations in homologous recombination repair (HRR) genes are frequent in mCRPC, and tumors harboring these mutations are known to be sensitive to PARP inhibitors. The aim of this study was to verify the technical effectiveness of this panel in the analysis of mCRPC, the frequency and type of mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes, as well as in the homologous recombination repair (HRR) genes. A total of 50 mCRPC cases were analyzed using a multi-gene next-generation sequencing panel evaluating a total of 1360 amplicons in 24 HRR genes. Of the 50 cases, 23 specimens (46.0%) had an mCRPC harboring a pathogenic variant or a variant of uncertain significance (VUS), whereas in 27 mCRPCs (54.0%), no mutations were detected (wild-type tumors). BRCA2 was the most commonly mutated gene (14.0% of samples), followed by ATM (12.0%), and BRCA1 (6.0%). In conclusion, we have set up an NGS multi-gene panel that is capable of analyzing BRCA1/BRCA2 and HRR alterations in mCRPC. Moreover, our clinical algorithm is currently being used in clinical practice for the management of patients with mCRPC

    Effects of Boswellia Serrata Roxb. and Curcuma longa L. in an In Vitro Intestinal Inflammation Model Using Immune Cells and Caco-2

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    Inflammatory bowel diseases, which consist of chronic inflammatory conditions of the colon and the small intestine, are considered a global disease of our modern society. Recently, the interest toward the use of herbal therapies for the management of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased because of their effectiveness and favourable safety profile, compared to conventional drugs. Boswellia serrata Roxb. and Curcuma longa L. are amongst the most promising herbal drugs, however, their clinical use in inflammatory bowel diseases is limited and little is known on their mechanism of action. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of two phytochemically characterized extracts of B. serrata and C. longa in an in vitro model of intestinal inflammation. Their impact on cytokine release and reactive oxygen species production, as well as the maintenance of the intestinal barrier function and on intestinal mucosa immune cells infiltration, has been evaluated. The extracts showed a good protective effect on the intestinal epithelium at 1 ¬Ķg/mL, with TEER values increasing by approximately 1.5 fold, compared to LPS-stimulated cells. C. longa showed an anti-inflammatory mechanism of action, reducing IL-8, TNF-őĪ and IL-6 production by approximately 30%, 25% and 40%, respectively, compared to the inflammatory stimuli. B. serrata action was linked to its antioxidant effect, with ROS production being reduced by 25%, compared to H‚āāO‚āā-stimulated Caco-2 cells. C. longa and B. serrata resulted to be promising agents for the management of inflammatory bowel diseases by modulating in vitro parameters which have been identified in the clinical conditions

    Evaluación de alternativas de manejo ganadero en escenarios de sequía severa en Bahía Blanca

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    En la actividad ganadera, la implantaci√≥n de pasturas perennes con tolerancia a la sequ√≠a se presenta como una alternativa muy importante para asegurar una oferta forrajera continua y de bajo costo. Otro recurso forrajero muy utilizado para la alimentaci√≥n de los rodeos de cr√≠a en la regi√≥n son los campos naturales, en los que adem√°s de su baja productividad se observan importantes niveles de degradaci√≥n. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un estudio comparativo modelando los √≠ndices f√≠sico-productivos y econ√≥micos de un sistema de cr√≠a bovina de alta tecnolog√≠a probado en la regi√≥n. El mismo fue evaluado frente a cuatro decisiones de manejo ganadero en un a√Īo de extrema sequ√≠a. El an√°lisis realizado ha confirmado la importancia de disponer de reservas propias con una adecuada cadena forrajera previamente planificada para mitigar el impacto de la sequ√≠a.In the livestock activity, the implantation of perennial pastures with tolerance to drought is presented as a very important alternative to ensure a continuous and low-cost forage supply. Another fodder resource widely used to feed breeding herds in the region are natural fields, in which, in addition to their low productivity, significant levels of degradation are observed. The aim of this paper is to carry out a comparative study modeling the physical-productive and economic indicators of a high-tech bovine breeding system tested in the region. It was evaluated against four livestock management decisions in a year of extreme drought. The analysis has confirmed the importance of having its own reserves with an adequate forage chain previously planned to mitigate the impact of the drought.EEA BordenaveFil: Torres Carbonell, Carlos Alberto. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA) Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Bordenave, Agencia de Extensi√≥n Rural Bah√≠a Blanca; ArgentinaFil: Lauric, Miriam Andrea. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA) Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Bordenave, Agencia de Extensi√≥n Rural Bah√≠a Blanca; ArgentinaFil: De Leo, Ger√≥nimo. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA) Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Bordenave, Agencia de Extensi√≥n Rural Bah√≠a Blanca; ArgentinaFil: Saldungaray, Mar√≠a Cecilia. Universidad Nacional del Sur. Departamento de Agronom√≠a; ArgentinaFil: Ad√ļriz, Miguel Angel. Universidad Nacional del Sur. Departamento de Agronom√≠a; ArgentinaFil: Scoponi, Liliana. Universidad Nacional del Sur. Departamento de Ciencias de la Administraci√≥n; ArgentinaFil: Chimeno, Patricia. Universidad Nacional del Sur. Departamento de Agronom√≠a; ArgentinaFil: Pi√Īeiro, Ver√≥nica. Universidad Nacional del Sur. Departamento de Agronom√≠a; ArgentinaFil: Conti, Viviana. Universidad Nacional del Sur. Departamento de Agronom√≠a; ArgentinaFil: Nori, Mauricia. Universidad Nacional del Sur. Departamento de Ciencias de la Administraci√≥n; ArgentinaFil: Cristiano, Gabriela. Universidad Nacional del Sur. Departamento de Econom√≠a; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas; Argentin

    Computed Tomography Measurement of Rib Cage Morphometry in Emphysema

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    Background: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. Methods: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage) in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT). CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%). The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. Results: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)%, and forced vital capacity (FVC)% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R2‚Ää =‚Ää64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level). Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area). Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%). Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    RARE-Bestpractices: a platform for sharing best practices for the management of rare diseases

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    From 7th European Conference on Rare Diseases and Orphan Products (ECRD 2014).Rare diseases; clinical practice guidelines; recommendations. RARE-Bestpractices (http://www.rarebestpractices.eu) is a 4-year project (2013-2016) funded by the EC FP7. The project aims at improving clinical management of patients with rare diseases (RD) and at narrowing the existing gap in quality of healthcare among countries. Methods: RARE-Bestpractices (http://www.rarebestpractices.eu) involves 9 EU countries, including 15 partners from academic institutions, governmental bodies, patient organizations and networks, which will exploit the added value of integrating different contributions and viewpoints. The platform is developed involving both experts in RD research as well as experts in clinical practice guidelines (CPG) and systematic reviews. Results: Project expected outputs include: 1) identification of challenges to be considered in deriving high quality standards for CPG on RD; 2) transparent procedures and criteria for the evaluation of CPG and their collection in a publicly searchable database; 3) identification of notation criteria to improve user understandability and implementation of CPG; 4) production of mechanisms to assess RD clinical research needs; 5) development of training activities targeted to key stakeholders to disseminate process and tools for developing and evaluating CPG; 6) the publication of a new scientific journal (http://rarejournal.org). Discussion: RARE-Bestpractices addresses the demands from both patients and health care providers for updated and high quality CPG on RD. The project will meet the requirements laid down by to the Directive 2011/24/EU, which endorses EU MS to develop European Reference Networks (ERNs) for RD; in fact, one main criterion for ERNs should be the competence to produce CPG and actively disseminate them among Centers of Expertise.N

    Colorectal Cancer Stage at Diagnosis Before vs During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy

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    IMPORTANCE Delays in screening programs and the reluctance of patients to seek medical attention because of the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 could be associated with the risk of more advanced colorectal cancers at diagnosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was associated with more advanced oncologic stage and change in clinical presentation for patients with colorectal cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included all 17 938 adult patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer from March 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021 (pandemic period), and from January 1, 2018, to February 29, 2020 (prepandemic period), in 81 participating centers in Italy, including tertiary centers and community hospitals. Follow-up was 30 days from surgery. EXPOSURES Any type of surgical procedure for colorectal cancer, including explorative surgery, palliative procedures, and atypical or segmental resections. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was advanced stage of colorectal cancer at diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were distant metastasis, T4 stage, aggressive biology (defined as cancer with at least 1 of the following characteristics: signet ring cells, mucinous tumor, budding, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and lymphangitis), stenotic lesion, emergency surgery, and palliative surgery. The independent association between the pandemic period and the outcomes was assessed using multivariate random-effects logistic regression, with hospital as the cluster variable. RESULTS A total of 17 938 patients (10 007 men [55.8%]; mean [SD] age, 70.6 [12.2] years) underwent surgery for colorectal cancer: 7796 (43.5%) during the pandemic period and 10 142 (56.5%) during the prepandemic period. Logistic regression indicated that the pandemic period was significantly associated with an increased rate of advanced-stage colorectal cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95%CI, 1.01-1.13; P = .03), aggressive biology (OR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.15-1.53; P < .001), and stenotic lesions (OR, 1.15; 95%CI, 1.01-1.31; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This cohort study suggests a significant association between the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the risk of a more advanced oncologic stage at diagnosis among patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer and might indicate a potential reduction of survival for these patients
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