3,119 research outputs found

    An outline of polar spaces: basics and advances

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    This paper is an extended version of a series of lectures on polar spaces given during the workshop and conference 'Groups and Geometries', held at the Indian Statistical Institute in Bangalore in December 2012. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the theory of polar spaces focusing on some research topics related to polar spaces. We survey the fundamental results about polar spaces starting from classical polar spaces. Then we introduce and report on the state of the art on the following research topics: polar spaces of infinite rank, embedding polar spaces in groups and projective embeddings of dual polar spaces

    Measuring Cosmological Parameters with the JVAS and CLASS Gravitational Lens Surveys

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    The JVAS (Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey) and CLASS (Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey) are well-defined surveys containing about ten thousand flat-spectrum radio sources. For many reasons, flat-spectrum radio sources are particularly well-suited as a population from which one can obtain unbiased samples of gravitational lenses. These are by far the largest gravitational (macro)lens surveys, and particular attention was paid to constructing a cleanly-defined sample for the survey itself and for the underlying luminosity function. Here we present the constraints on cosmological parameters, particularly the cosmological constant, derived from JVAS and combine them with constraints from optical gravitational lens surveys, `direct' measurements of Ω0\Omega_{0}, H0H_{0} and the age of the universe, and constraints derived from CMB anisotropies, before putting this final result into the context of the latest results from other, independent cosmological tests.Comment: LaTeX, 9 pages, 6 PostScript figures, uses texas.sty. To appear in the Proceedings of the 19th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology (CD-ROM). Paper version available on request. Actual poster (A0 and A4 versions) available from http://multivac.jb.man.ac.uk:8000/helbig/research/publications/info/ texas98.htm

    Growth saturation of unstable thin films on transverse-striped hydrophilic-hydrophobic micropatterns

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    Using three-dimensional numerical simulations, we demonstrate the growth saturation of an unstable thin liquid film on micropatterned hydrophilic-hydrophobic substrates. We consider different transverse-striped micropatterns, characterized by the total fraction of hydrophilic coverage and the width of the hydrophilic stripes. We compare the growth of the film on the micropatterns to the steady states observed on homogeneous substrates, which correspond to a saturated sawtooth and growing finger configurations for hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, respectively. The proposed micropatterns trigger an alternating fingering-spreading dynamics of the film, which leads to a complete suppression of the contact line growth above a critical fraction of hydrophilic stripes. Furthermore, we find that increasing the width of the hydrophilic stripes slows down the advancing front, giving smaller critical fractions the wider the hydrophilic stripes are. Using analytical approximations, we quantitatively predict the growth rate of the contact line as a function of the covering fraction, and predict the threshold fraction for saturation as a function of the stripe width.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figure

    CLASS B1152+199 and B1359+154: Two New Gravitational Lens Systems Discovered in the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey

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    The third phase of the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS) has recently been completed, bringing the total number of sources imaged to over 15000 in the CLASS and JVAS combined survey. In the VLA observations carried out in March and April of 1998, two new candidate lensed systems were discovered: CLASS B1152+199 and B1359+154. B1152+199 is a 1.6 arcsecond double, with a background quasar at z=1.019 lensed by a foreground galaxy at z=0.439. The relatively flat radio spectra of the lensed images, combined with a previous ROSAT detection of the source, make B1152+199 a strong candidate for time delay studies at both radio and X-ray wavelengths. B1359+154 is a quadruply lensed quasar at z=3.235, with a maximum image separation of 1.7 arcseconds. As yet, the redshift of the lensing object in this system is undetermined. The steep spectral index of the source suggests that B1359+154 will not exhibit strong variability, and is therefore unlikely to be useful for determining the Hubble constant from measured time delays.Comment: accepted for publication in The Astronomical Journa

    B0850+054: a new gravitational lens system from CLASS

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    We report the discovery of a new gravitational lens system from the CLASS survey. Radio observations with the VLA, the WSRT and MERLIN show that the radio source B0850+054 is comprised of two compact components with identical spectra, a separation of 0.7 arcsec and a flux density ratio of 6:1. VLBA observations at 5 GHz reveal structures that are consistent with the gravitational lens hypothesis. The brighter of the two images is resolved into a linear string of at least six sub-components whilst the weaker image is radially stretched towards the lens galaxy. UKIRT K-band imaging detects an 18.7 mag extended object, but the resolution of the observations is not sufficient to resolve the lensed images and the lens galaxy. Mass modelling has not been possible with the present data and the acquisition of high-resolution optical data is a priority for this system.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Extrinsic Radio Variability of JVAS/CLASS Gravitational Lenses

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    We present flux-ratio curves of the fold and cusp (i.e. close multiple) images of six JVAS/CLASS gravitational lens systems. The data were obtained over a period of 8.5 months in 2001 with the Multi-Element Radio-Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) at 5-GHz with 50 mas resolution, as part of a MERLIN Key-Project. Even though the time delays between the fold and cusp images are small (<~1 d) compared to the time-scale of intrinsic source variability, all six lens system show evidence, based on their flux-ratio curves, that might suggest the presence of extrinsic variability. In contrast, the cusp images of B2045+265 -- regarded as the strongest case of the violation of the cusp relation -- show extrinsic variations in their flux-ratios up to \~40% peak-to-peak on time scales of several months. Its low Galactic latitude of b=-10deg and a line-of-sight toward the Cygnus superbubble region suggest that Galactic scintillation is the most likely cause. The cusp images of B1422+231 at b=+69deg do not show strong extrinsic variability. Galactic scintillation can therefore cause significant scatter in the cusp and fold relations of some radio lens systems (up to 10% rms), even though these relations remain violated when averaged over a <~1 year time baseline
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