861 research outputs found

    Content of exercise programmes targeting older people with sarcopenia or frailty – findings from a UK survey

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    Objectives: To establish whether existing exercise programmes offered to people with sarcopenia or frailty adhere to the current evidence base. Methods: We conducted a national survey of practitioners delivering exercise programmes to older people with sarcopenia or frailty in the UK. The link to the online survey was distributed through email lists of professional societies, practice networks and social media. Questions covered target population and programme aims, type, duration and frequency of exercise, progress assessment and outcome measures. Results: One hundred and thirty-six responses were received. 94% of respondents reported prescribing or delivering exercise programmes to people with sarcopenia or frailty. Most programmes (81/135 [60%]) were primarily designed to prevent or reduce falls. Resistance training was the main focus in only 11/123 (9%), balance training in 61/123 (50%) and functional exercise in 28/123 (23%). Exercise was offered once a week or less by 81/124 (65%) of respondents. Outcome measures suitable for assessing the effect of resistance training programmes were reported by fewer than half of respondents (hand grip: 13/119 [11%]; chair stands: 55/119 [46%]). Conclusions: Current UK exercise programmes offered to older people with sarcopenia or frailty lack the specificity, frequency or duration of exercise likely to improve outcomes for this patient group

    Friedreich ataxia patient tissues exhibit increased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine modification and decreased CTCF binding at the FXN locus

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    © 2013 Al-Mahdawi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund.Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is caused by a homozygous GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene, which induces epigenetic changes and FXN gene silencing. Bisulfite sequencing studies have identified 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) DNA methylation as one of the epigenetic changes that may be involved in this process. However, analysis of samples by bisulfite sequencing is a time-consuming procedure. In addition, it has recently been shown that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) is also present in mammalian DNA, and bisulfite sequencing cannot distinguish between 5 hmC and 5 mC.The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement number 242193/EFACTS (CS), the Wellcome Trust [089757] (SA) and Ataxia UK (RMP) to MAP

    Effects of Oral Administration of Lepidium meyenii on Morphology of Mice Testis and Motility of Epididymal Sperm Cells After Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure

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    Background: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration is associated with testicular damage and reduced semen quality. Oral administration of Lepidium Meyenii (maca) improves spermatogenesis and sperm motility and count and reduces spermatogenic damage. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of THC, maca, and their combination on testicular tissue and semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six-week-old male mice were classified into control, THC, Maca, and THC + Maca groups. The mice were subjected to Eco Color Doppler ultrasound examination of the testicles before and after treatment. After euthanasia, the epididymis, testes, liver, and kidney were collected for histological examination. For morphometry of the testis, tubular diameters and seminiferous epithelium height were measured. Sperm concentration and sperm motilities were assessed. Differences among the groups were assessed using the Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc test. Results: In all the groups, there were no significant changes in testicular morphology before and after treatment. Histological assessment of the testes showed no alterations in control, no significant alterations in Maca, mild to moderate alterations in THC, and mild alterations in THC + Maca groups. Histological examination of the other organs showed no significant differences among the groups. Tubular diameter showed significantly increased thickening for THC and THC + Maca compared with that for Maca and control. Moreover, seminiferous epithelium height decreased for THC compared with that in the control, Maca, and THC + Maca groups. No statistically significant reduction in the spermatogenic index was observed for THC compared with that for Maca and THC + Maca. Epididymal cross-sections of the groups showed no significant alterations. Sperm concentration and motility were higher for control and THC + Maca groups than in group THC and Maca. Conclusion: In vivo maca administration reduced the deleterious effect of THC on testicular parenchyma and semen production

    β2-Adrenergic receptor stimulation improves endothelial progenitor cell-mediated ischemic neoangiogenesis

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    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are present in the systemic circulation and home to sites of ischemic injury where they promote neoangiogenesis. β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2AR) plays a critical role in vascular tone regulation and neoangiogenesis

    Dinâmica espectro-temporal MODIS em plantios de paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex. Ducke) Barneby) associada a diferentes condições hídricas do solo na Amazônia brasileira.

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    As características de absorção e reflectâncias nas faixas do vermelho e infravermelho próximo em dosséis, tanto de plantios como de vegetação natural, auxiliam na identificação de respostas espectrais em diversas condições de tempo e clima. Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento espectral em plantios de paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) Barneby) nos períodos de maior e de menor oferta hídrica, em Dom Eliseu, Pa. Foram analisados dados meteorológicos, balanços hídricos (CAD=300 mm) e respostas em NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) extraídos do sensor MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). As imagens-índice referentes aos meses de janeiro a dezembro foram processadas no software Envi 4.5 e retiradas amostras com base em dados de verdade terrestre. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente, aplicando-se teste de média e análise de perfil por meio de técnicas uni e multivariadas. Verificou-se que existe tendência no vigor do paricá, com decrescimento de 0,85 a 0,68, nos meses de maior deficiência hídrica, em nível de significância de 5 %. Conclui-se que o NDVI respondeu significativamente à condição hídrica do solo, em plantios de paricá, no Estado do Pará

    MutLα heterodimers modify the molecular phenotype of Friedreich ataxia

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    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund.Background: Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), the most common autosomal recessive ataxia disorder, is caused by a dynamic GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of FXN gene, resulting in down-regulation of frataxin expression. Studies of cell and mouse models have revealed a role for the mismatch repair (MMR) MutS-heterodimer complexes and the PMS2 component of the MutLα complex in the dynamics of intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions: MSH2, MSH3 and MSH6 promote GAA repeat expansions, while PMS2 inhibits GAA repeat expansions. Methodology/Principal Findings: To determine the potential role of the other component of the MutLα complex, MLH1, in GAA repeat instability in FRDA, we have analyzed intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions from FXN transgenic mice that have been crossed with Mlh1 deficient mice. We find that loss of Mlh1 activity reduces both intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions. However, we also find that loss of either Mlh1 or Pms2 reduces FXN transcription, suggesting different mechanisms of action for Mlh1 and Pms2 on GAA repeat expansion dynamics and regulation of FXN transcription. Conclusions/Significance: Both MutLα components, PMS2 and MLH1, have now been shown to modify the molecular phenotype of FRDA. We propose that upregulation of MLH1 or PMS2 could be potential FRDA therapeutic approaches to increase FXN transcription. © 2014 Ezzatizadeh et al.This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund

    White light thermoplasmonic activated gold nanorod arrays enable the photo-thermal disinfection of medical tools from bacterial contamination

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    The outspread of bacterial pathogens causing severe infections and spreading rapidly, especially among hospitalized patients, is worrying and represents a global public health issue. Current disinfection techniques are becoming insufficient to counteract the spread of these pathogens because they carry multiple antibiotic-resistance genes. For this reason, a constant need exists for new technological solutions that rely on physical methods rather than chemicals. Nanotechnology support provides novel and unexplored opportunities to boost groundbreaking, next-gen solutions. With the help of plasmonic-assisted nanomaterials, we present and discuss our findings in innovative bacterial disinfection techniques. Gold nanorods (AuNRs) immobilized on rigid substrates are utilized as efficient white light-to-heat transducers (thermoplasmonic effect) for photo-thermal (PT) disinfection. The resulting AuNRs array shows a high sensitivity change in refractive index and an extraordinary capability in converting white light to heat, producing a temperature change greater than 50 °C in a few minute interval illumination time. Results were validated using a theoretical approach based on a diffusive heat transfer model. Experiments performed with a strain of Escherichia coli as a model microorganism confirm the excellent capability of the AuNRs array to reduce the bacteria viability upon white light illumination. Conversely, the E. coli cells remain viable without white light illumination, which also confirms the lack of intrinsic toxicity of the AuNRs array. The PT transduction capability of the AuNRs array is utilized to produce white light heating of medical tools used during surgical treatments, generating a temperature increase that can be controlled and is suitable for disinfection. Our findings are pioneering a new opportunity for healthcare facilities since the reported methodology allows non-hazardous disinfection of medical devices by simply employing a conventional white light lamp

    Genotypic and allelic frequencies of gene polymorphisms associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle.

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    The objectives of this study were to characterize the allelic and genotypic frequencies of polymorphisms in the μ-calpain and calpastatin genes, and to assess their association with meat tenderness and animal growth in Nellore cattle. We evaluated 605 Nellore animals at 24 months of age, on average, at slaughter. The polymorphisms were determined for the molecular markers CAPN316, CAPN530, CAPN4751, CAPN4753, and UOGACAST1. Analyses of meat tenderness at 7, 14, and 21 days of maturation were performed in samples of longissimus thoracis obtained between the 12th and 13th rib and sheared using a Warner Bratzler Shear Force. Significant effects were observed for meat tenderness at days 7, 14, and 21 of maturation for the marker CAPN4751, at day 21 for the marker CAPN4753, and at days 14 and 21 for the marker UOGCAST1. For genotypic combinations of markers, the results were significant for the combination CAPN4751/UOGCAST1 in the three maturation periods and CAPN4753/UOGCAST1 at days 14 and 21 of maturation
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