3,513 research outputs found

    A new generation photodetector for astroparticle physics: the VSiPMT

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    The VSiPMT (Vacuum Silicon PhotoMultiplier Tube) is an innovative design we proposed for a revolutionary photon detector. The main idea is to replace the classical dynode chain of a PMT with a SiPM (G-APD), the latter acting as an electron detector and amplifier. The aim is to match the large sensitive area of a photocathode with the performance of the SiPM technology. The VSiPMT has many attractive features. In particular, a low power consumption and an excellent photon counting capability. To prove the feasibility of the idea we first tested the performance of a special non-windowed SiPM by Hamamatsu (MPPC) as electron detector and current amplifier. Thanks to this result Hamamatsu realized two VSiPMT industrial prototypes. In this work, we present the results of a full characterization of the VSiPMT prototype

    A versatile cryogenic system for liquid argon detectors

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    Detectors for direct dark matter search using noble gases in liquid phase as detection medium need to be coupled to liquefaction, purification and recirculation systems. A dedicated cryogenic system has been assembled and operated at the INFN-Naples cryogenic laboratory with the aim to liquefy and purify the argon used as active target in liquid argon detectors to study the scintillation and ionization signals detected by large SiPMs arrays. The cryogenic system is mainly composed of a double wall cryostat hosting the detector, a purification stage to reduce the impurities below one part per billion level, a condenser to liquefy the argon, a recirculation gas panel connected to the cryostat equipped with a custom gas pump. The main features of the cryogenic system are reported as well as the performances, long term operations and stability in terms of the most relevant thermodynamic parameters.Comment: Prepared for submission to JINST - LIDINE2022 September 21-23, 2022 - University of Warsaw Librar

    The VSiPMT project

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    Photon detection is a key factor to study many physical processes in several areas of fundamental physics research. Focusing the attention on photodetectors for particle astrophysics, the future experiments aimed at the study of very high-energy or extremely rare phenomena (e.g. dark matter, proton decay, neutrinos from astrophysical sources) will require additional improvements in linearity, gain, quantum efficiency and single photon counting capability. To meet the requirements of this class of experiments, we propose a new design for a modern hybrid photodetector: the VSiPMT (Vacuum Silicon PhotoMultiplier Tube). The idea is to replace the classical dynode chain of a PMT with a SiPM, which therefore acts as an electron detector and amplifier. The aim is to match the large sensitive area of a photocathode with the performances of the SiPM technology. We now present the preliminary study we are performing to realize a 3-inches VSiPMT prototype

    Effectiveness and safety of a single freeze strategy of cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation: an EHRA systematic review and meta-analysis

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    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness and safety of cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) performed using a single freeze strategy in comparison to an empiric double ('bonus') freeze strategy. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases from inception to 12 July 2020, for prospective and retrospective studies of patients undergoing cryoballoon for paroxysmal or persistent AF comparing a single vs. bonus freeze strategy. The main outcome was atrial arrhythmia-free survival and eligible studies required at least 12 months of follow-up; the primary safety outcome was a composite of all complications. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Thirteen studies (3 randomized controlled trials and 10 observational studies) comprising 3163 patients were eligible for inclusion (64% males, 71.5% paroxysmal AF, mean CHA2DS2-VASc score 1.3 ± 0.9). There was no significant difference in pooled effectiveness between single freeze strategy compared to double freeze strategy [relative risk (RR) 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-1.07; I2 = 0%]. Single freeze procedures were associated with a significantly lower adverse event rate (RR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53-0.98; I2 = 0%) and shorter average procedure time (90 ± 27 min vs. 121 ± 36 min, P < 0.001). A trend for lower risk of persistent phrenic nerve palsy was observed (RR 0.61; 95% CI: 0.37-1.01; I2 = 0%). The quality of included studies was moderate/good, with no evidence of significant publication bias. Single freeze strategy for cryoballoon of AF is as effective as an empiric double ('bonus') freeze strategy while appearing safer and probably quicker

    Ageing test of the ATLAS RPCs at X5-GIF

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    An ageing test of three ATLAS production RPC stations is in course at X5-GIF, the CERN irradiation facility. The chamber efficiencies are monitored using cosmic rays triggered by a scintillator hodoscope. Higher statistics measurements are made when the X5 muon beam is available. We report here the measurements of the efficiency versus operating voltage at different source intensities, up to a maximum counting rate of about 700Hz/cm^2. We describe the performance of the chambers during the test up to an overall ageing of 4 ATLAS equivalent years corresponding to an integrated charge of 0.12C/cm^2, including a safety factor of 5.Comment: 4 pages. Presented at the VII Workshop on Resistive Plate Chambers and Related Detectors; Clermont-Ferrand October 20th-22nd, 200

    The Muon Spectrometer Barrel Level-1 Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

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    The proton-proton beam crossing at the LHC accelerator at CERN will have a rate of 40 MHz at the project luminosity. The ATLAS Trigger System has been designed in three levels in order to select only interesting physics events reducing from that rate of 40 MHz to the foreseen storage rate of about 200 Hz. The First Level reduces the output rate to about 100 kHz. The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer has been designed to perform stand-alone triggering and measurement of muon transverse momentum up to 1 TeV/c with good resolution (from 3% at 10 GeV/c up to 10% at 1 TeV/c). In the Barrel region of the Muon Spectrometer the Level-1 trigger is given by means of three layers of Resistive Plate Chamber detectors (RPC): a gaseous detector working in avalanche mode composed by two plates of high-resistivity bakelite and two orthogonal planes of read-out strips. The logic of the Level-1 barrel muon trigger is based on the search of patterns of RPC hits in the three layers consistent with a high transverse momentum muon track originated from the interaction vertex. The associated trigger electronics is based on dedicated processors, the Coincidence Matrix boards, performing space coincidences and time gates and providing the RPC readout as well. A detailed simulation of the ATLAS Experiment and of both the hardware components and the logic of the Level-1 Muon Trigger in the barrel of the Muon Spectrometer has been performed. This simulation has been used not only to evaluate the performances of the system but also to define the hardware set-up such as the cabling of both the trigger detectors and the trigger electronics modules. A description of both the Level-1 Muon Trigger system in the barrel and the RPC detectors, with their cosmic rays quality tests, will be presented together with the trigger performances and rates calculations evaluated for muons over a wide range of pT and preliminary studies on the impact of accidental triggers due to low energy background particles in the experimental area

    Characteristics of patients initiated on edoxaban in Europe: baseline data from edoxaban treatment in routine clinical practice for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in Europe (ETNA-AF-Europe)

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    Background Non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have substantially improved anticoagulation therapy for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The available routine care data have demonstrated the safety of different NOACs; however, such data for edoxaban are scarce. Here, we report baseline characteristics of 13,638 edoxaban-treated patients with AF enrolled between November 2016 and February 2018. Methods ETNA-AF-Europe is a multinational, multi-centre, post-authorisation, observational study conducted in 825 sites in 10 European countries. Patients will be followed up for four years. Results Overall, 13,980 patients were enrolled of which 342 patients were excluded from the analysis. Mean patient age was 73.6 years with an average creatinine clearance of 69.4 mL/min. 56.6% were male. The calculated CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED mean scores were 3.1 and 2.6, respectively. Overall, 3.3, 14.6 and 82.0% of patients had low (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0), intermediate (CHA2DS2-VASc = 1) and high (CHA2DS2-VASc≥2) risks of stroke, respectively. High-risk patients (those with prior stroke, prior major bleeding, prior intracranial bleed or CHA2DS2-VASc ≥4) comprised 38.4% of the overall population. For 75.1% of patients edoxaban was their first anticoagulant prescription, whilst 16.9% switched from a VKA and 8.0% from another NOAC. A total of 23.4% of patients in ETNA-AF-Europe received the reduced dose of edoxaban 30 mg. Overall, 83.8% of patients received an edoxaban dose in line with the criteria outlined in the label. Conclusion Edoxaban was predominantly initiated in older, often anticoagulation-naïve, unselected European patients with AF, with a good overall adherence to the approved label. Trial registration NCT02944019; Date of registration: October 24, 2016

    Treatment of pathophysiologic propagation outside of the pulmonary veins in retreatment of atrial fibrillation patients:RECOVER AF study

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    Aims RECOVER AF evaluated the performance of whole-chamber non-contact charge-density mapping to guide the ablation of non-pulmonary vein (PV) targets in persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) patients following either a first or second failed procedure. Methods RECOVER AF was a prospective, non-randomized trial that enrolled patients scheduled for a first or second ablation re- and results treatment for recurrent AF. The PVs were assessed and re-isolated if necessary. The AF maps were used to guide the ablation of non-PV targets through elimination of pathologic conduction patterns (PCPs). Primary endpoint was freedom from AF on or off antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) at 12 months. Patients undergoing retreatment with the AcQMap System (n = 103) were 76% AF-free at 12 months [67% after single procedure (SP)] on or off AADs (80% free from AF on AADs). Patients who had only received a pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) prior to study treatment of non-PV targets with the AcQMap System were 91% AF-free at 12 months (83% SP). No major adverse events were reported. Conclusion Non-contact mapping can be used to target and guide the ablation of PCPs beyond the PVs in persistent AF patients returning for a first or second retreatment with 76% freedom from AF at 12 months. The AF freedom was particularly high, 91% (43/47), for patients enrolled having only a prior de novo PVI, and freedom from all atrial arrhythmias for this cohort was 74% (35/47). These early results are encouraging and suggest that guiding individualized targeted ablation of PCPs may therefore be advantageous to target at the earliest opportunity in patients with persistent AF.</p
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