2,407 research outputs found

    Reshaping the teaching of anatomy: tensions affecting the introductory undergraduate course

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    Este artigo pretende iniciar a discussão da condição curricular da Anatomia Humana nos cursos médicos da atualidade frente a tensões que incidem sobre ela, que a podem estar levando a uma crise de manutenção de seu status sociocurricular. Baseamo-nos na análise bibliográfica e documental, conjugando as teorias sócio-históricas da construção dos currículos e disciplinas, a construção da Anatomia nos currículos médicos e condições gerais de apresentação da disciplina nestes currículos para elencarmos quatro tensões para a discussão: introdução de novas propostas de ensino-aprendizado; relação anatomia ensinada, anatomia pesquisada; expansão do ensino; reconfiguração do campo de inserção. Nossa análise nos leva a assinalar uma crise na retórica legitimadora da disciplina, com consequente redução do grau de importância sociocurricular e possível cristalização disciplinar.This article aims to launch a discussion on the current undergraduate course curriculum in Human Anatomy and the tensions affecting it, which could be placing the course's social and curricular status in jeopardy. Our study is based on a literature review and document analysis, combining social and historical theories with the development of course curricula and disciplines, Human Anatomy in medical curricula, and the general conditions in which this course is presented in curricula, in order to list four tensions for discussion: introduction of new teaching-learning proposals; the relationship between anatomy as taught and anatomy as research; the expansion of teaching; and reshaping the field for inclusion of anatomy. Our analysis reveals a crisis in the underlying rhetoric of the course, resulting in a reduction in its social and curricular importance and a possible crystallization of the discipline

    Are the LPRs focusing on real life communication issues?

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    More than a decade after the ICAO LPRs were announced, most international pilots and controllers have been through aviation English training and testing cycles, but can we state that aviation communications have really improved because of that? This workshop was presented twice in a row in the session Have air-ground communications improved? and aimed at addressing some in-depth topics such as: is communication more effective nowadays?; have the LPRs increased native speakers’ awareness of the needs of non-native English pilots & ATCOs?; is phraseology being overshadowed by plain English? and how effective is communication among personnel with varying proficiency levels? In order to shed new light onto these questions and to raise awareness on how to analyze fluency and interaction in a radiotelephony corpus, on top of relating the findings to the Proficiency Scale provided by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the workshop presented five authentic samples of air-ground communications that have happened recently, each of them presenting a different non-routine or emergency situation. To support the analysis, some resources from corpus linguistics were provided. The proponents started the workshop by presenting data from aviation English corpora with over 100 communications from pilots and controllers from all over the world, to bring some insights about elements collected from an automated analysis of inputted language. For instance, a word cloud and a table were presented with the 36 most frequent three-word clusters, which revealed the frequent use of modalized language, in expressions such as if you can, if you need, \u27d like to, able to do, and do you want. The use of gonna was very frequent, too, in chunks such as I\u27m gonna, you\u27re gonna, we\u27re gonna, which reveals the immediate character of the decisions that are made in real time. But there is some room for politeness too, which can be attested in expressions like thank you, thank you very much, okay, that\u27s fine and the use of honorifics. After these general comments about characteristics of aviation English, participants were invited to work together in the analysis of 5 transcripts of samples of communications taken from the abovementioned corpus. They were split in groups of 4-5, with different backgrounds (pilots, controllers, trainers, raters, civil aviation authorities, etc.) and had to analyze the linguistic strategies used by pilots and controllers in their effort to communicate effectively in non-routine or emergency situations. To guide the analysis, participants were encouraged to look at the use of modalizers to soften language; any switches from phraseology to plain English; assumptions of peer proficiency; and assumptions of shared knowledge. It is important to emphasize that, so as to prevent their identification and avoid any nationality or accent influence in the judgment, the call signs and ATC facilities were replaced by fictional names based on birds (seagull, lark, dove, etc.). To represent the features of spoken language, symbols were used in the scripts (/ for prosodic breaks, … for removed parts, \u3c\u3e for tagged information, uh for hesitations). There was a time limit of 10 minutes for the discussion of each transcript. The workshop presenters monitored the groups to guide the discussions and control time and pace. After the time was over, groups had to share their answers with the audience and, for each of the five transcripts, the comments were presented on a slide. Afterwards, the audio of each transcript was played, so that the audience could listen to the actual events and be exposed to features such as prosody and accents – which were facilitated by the identification of the airlines, facilities and presumed nationalities. Then, they were asked whether would change any of their answers or ideas after listening to the audios. After the four scripts were discussed, a 5th transcript was presented, this time with new information: when the audio was played, the audience realized that pilot and controller were non-native English speakers from the same nationality; but, even though they were experiencing stressful moments, they opted for speaking English instead of switching to their shared language. There was consensus about the proficiency of these professionals, who were able to manage the communication and use linguistic strategies effectively in a clear, concise and precise way. The aim of this discussion was to raise issues questioning the relevance of classifying pilots and ATCOs as native or non-native speakers or aiming at near-native proficiency , and promote a new view – that of proficient (or non-proficient) aviation professionals should be attested in a situation of peer communication – and what should be considered good examples (models) of fluency and interaction on the radiotelephony. To end the workshop, another word cloud was presented, this time showing the most frequent words taken from the five scripts altogether. Some graphs were designed based the most frequent expressions along with some communicative functions such as: sharing information on future actions; sharing information on capacity; making requests and offers and exchanging information, based on Mell’s aviation language competences (2004) which are mentioned in Doc 9835 (ICAO, 2010). But, due to time constraints, they were not demonstrated to the audience of either workshop. By exploring real life communications beyond the triad pronunciation-structure-vocabulary (usually the linguistic criteria most dealt with), the main objective of the workshop was to lead participants to a discussion and personal reflection about whether the LPRs could contemplate these fluency and interaction elements and how to improve them with more specific guidelines concerning training and testing. The overall impression was that there is much emphasis on individual performance, when there is a need for a more integrated approach, including pragmatic elements which will enhance a more complete language competence. Stakeholders must take into account not only the speaker´s communication skills, but also the importance of the interlocutors\u27 role in linguistic and non-linguistic aspects, particularly for this voice-only communication context

    Informação estratégica para negócios na indústria nacional de compensados

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    Orientador: Lígia Leindorf Bartz KraemerMonografia(Graduação) - Universidade Federal do Paraná,Setor de Ciências Sociais Aplicadas, Curso de Gestão da Informaçã

    Reading Literacy in EU Countries: Evidences from PIRLS

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    In this report we used data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2011 in order to identify the school, class and individual student background factors that explain reading literacy achievement. We aim to identify the factors associated with achievement at different levels of analysis, both at the EU level and at the individual country level using a multilevel model. Additionally, we intend to establish trends in students reading achievement by comparing PIRLS 2006 and PIRLS 2011 cycles. For the data from 2011 we found that our aggregated model explains 37% of the variance in students’ achievement and that the variables with the highest impact on students´ overall reading score relate to home resources and practices, students´ attitudes toward reading and pre-reading knowledge. Moreover, the results of the country-level analysis indicate that the variables with the strongest influence on students’ reading performance are the same, despite of the wide variation across countries in terms of their magnitude due to the characteristics of each country. Furthermore, these findings are in line with the previous analysis performed for PIRLS 2006 (Araújo & Costa, 2012). Our results have important policy implications as they show which factors can be addressed by policy measures to improve students´ achievement.JRC.DDG.01-Econometrics and applied statistic

    O uso da informação do ambiente no processo de decisão estratégica de empresários brasileiros e americanos de pequenas empresas

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    This study aims to understand the practices of Brazilian and American small and medium enterprises with regard to the use of environmental information in the strategic decision-making process. Some aspects were studied in depth: description of the activities performed by these business owners regarding the environmental information and analysis of the differences and similarities between the practices of business owners in the two countries. The research is of an exploratory nature, with a qualitative approach that used the mapping of experiences as a method. The results suggest that both Brazilians and Americans sought to use information from the environment as an aid in the process of strategic decision-making. Some differences were noticed between Brazilian and American practices: the use of intuition, the sharing with family members and the dissemination of environmental information among team members. This study may contribute to the competitiveness of smaller companies in Brazil, which are still susceptible to a high mortality rate.Keywords: environmental information, strategic decision, small and medium enterprises, Brazilian and Americans business owners.Este estudo busca entender as práticas de pequenas e médias empresas brasileiras e americanas no que diz respeito ao uso de informações do ambiente durante o processo de tomada de decisão estratégica. Alguns aspectos foram estudados em maior profundidade: descrição das atividades realizadas pelos proprietários com foco nas informações do ambiente e na análise das diferenças e similaridades entre as práticas dos empresários dos dois países investigados. A pesquisa possui natureza exploratória, com abordagem qualitativa, utilizando como método o levantamento de experiências. Os achados sugerem que tanto brasileiros quanto americanos buscam utilizar as informações do ambiente como essenciais no processo de tomada de decisão estratégica.Algumas diferenças foram notadas ao se comparar a prática entre brasileiros e americanos: o uso da intuição, o compartilhamento com os membros da família e a disseminação das informações com a equipe de trabalho. Esse estudo poderá contribuir com a competitividade de pequenas empresas no Brasil, ainda sujeitas a altos índices de mortalidade.Palavras-chave: informação do ambiente, decisão estratégica, pequenas e médias empresas, proprietários brasileiros e americanos

    Analysis of epistemic practices in reports of higher education students groups in carrying out the inquiry-based activity of immunology

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    International audiencePractical classes in immunology are important to assist the learning of abstract theoretical concepts of biological phenomena learned in the classroom. Here, our proposal was the qualitative characterization of epistemic practices. Analysis of the results obtained from the investigative activities showed that student groups mobilize a huge variety of epistemic practices during reports writing, for example, to predict, conclude, name, describe, explain, opine, and the use of theoretical data for reviewing and evaluating the consistency of the data observed. A better understanding of these interactions can help in the teaching of Immunology classes for undergraduate students of life sciences and health courses

    Analysis of epistemic practices in reports of higher education students groups in carrying out the inquiry-based activity of immunology

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    International audiencePractical classes in immunology are important to assist the learning of abstract theoretical concepts of biological phenomena learned in the classroom. Here, our proposal was the qualitative characterization of epistemic practices. Analysis of the results obtained from the investigative activities showed that student groups mobilize a huge variety of epistemic practices during reports writing, for example, to predict, conclude, name, describe, explain, opine, and the use of theoretical data for reviewing and evaluating the consistency of the data observed. A better understanding of these interactions can help in the teaching of Immunology classes for undergraduate students of life sciences and health courses

    Arrendamento e acesso a terra no Brasil

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    Orientador: Antonio Marcio BuainainDissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de EconomiaResumo: Em vários países o desajuste entre a demanda e a disponibilidade de terras ociosas foi parcialmente reduzido por meio de diversas formas de cessão do uso da terra (por exemplo, arrendamento e parceria). No Brasil, apesar da coexistência de terras ociosas e de produtores sem (ou com terra insuficiente) para produzir, o arrendamento fundiário não se isseminou nem se consolidou como alternativa de acesso à terra. O objetivo central desta dissertação é analisar a dinâmica do mercado de arrendamento fundiário no Brasil, buscando identificar seus principais determinantes, institucionais e econômicos, assim como as falhas que afetam seu funcionamento. Parte-se da hipótese básica que o quadro institucional coloca entraves ao funcionamento do mercado fundiário, especialmente dos contratos envolvendo produtores mais pobres. Os proprietários não estariam interessados em correr riscos relacionados aos contratos com garantias precárias. Haveria ainda o risco de desapropriação para fins de reforma agrária de terras arrendadas e de inadimplência, uma vez que os arrendatários sofrem restrições aos mercados de insumos, serviços e, principalmente, financeiro. O estudo analisa um conjunto de hipóteses extraídas da literatura econômica para explicar as falhas de mercado. Está baseado na experiência dos Programas Municipais de Arrendamento de Terras na Região do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba. Conclui-se que mudanças nos direitos de propriedade poderiam beneficiar os arrendatários e os proprietários que estão sujeitos aregimes de propriedade ambíguos ou adversos. A redefinição desses direitos geraria os incentivos e a segurança necessários tanto para os proprietários arrendarem suas terras sem risco de perdê-Ias como para os produtores arrendatários realizarem investimentos mais arriscados e de longa maturação suficientes para atingir um nível de rendimento compatível com o pagamento da renda fundiária e a retenção de um excedenteAbstract: In many countries the desagreement between the demand and the avaliability of inoccupation lands was partly reduced by several ways of surrender of effects or transfer of ownerships, like rent ou partnership. Although in Brazil exist a coexistence of inoccupation lands and people with or withoutenough lands to produce. The agrarian lease lands doesn't diffused and consolidated eithe such as an altemative of accesse to lands. The central objective of this study is to analyze the dynamics of the agrarian lease lands market in Brazil, trying to identify its mainly economical and institucional determinants as well as the defects that affect its functioning. The study begings by the fundamental hypothesis that the institucional chart placed impediments at the lease lands market functioning, especially about the agreements envoluing poorly people. The landlords are n't interested in risks relationed to the agreements with precarious guarentee. Exist also to risk about the dispossession for agrarian reform of land leases and breach of contract at a time that the lease-holders suffer restriction into the raw material and service market and principally financier. This study also analyze a set of hypothesis reproduced at economicalliterature to explain some market defects basis on an experiences in Municipal Land Lease Programs at Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba areas. It follows that the changes refering to property rights could benefit the lease-holders and landlords who are submilted to an ambigous property administration or adverse. The redefinition about those rights may be given the incentive and security necessaries as much as the landlords can lease its lands without risks of loosing them and the lease lands producers can make investiments toa risky and with a long maturation, enough to reach a level of efficiency compatible to the payment of the agrarian income and the retention of an excessoMestradoEconomia Agricola e AgrariaMestre em Desenvolvimento Econômic

    A profanação dos dispositivos escolares e o jogo teatral

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    The research introduces a theatrical practice performed with students from a public school in the city of Boituva in São Paulo State, Brazil, and arises from a concern regarding the presence of control devices in the school, particularly from a stairway and its rule that restricts the students’ access. The hypothesis is that the theater, specifically Spolin’s theater game (2003), has the potential of operating what Agamben (2007) states as “profanation”. The study involves the analysis of the concept of device in Foucault (1979; 2004) and Agamben (2009); the practice description, entitled “Theatrical Experience”; and the exposition of the student´s reports on the devices, which disclose a bond in relation to what was the first objective: to enable to reflect upon the existence of the devices in the school daily life, promoting a new use to them, by the profanation of the rule.A investigação apresenta uma prática teatral realizada com alunos de uma escola da rede municipal de ensino, do município de Boituva-SP, e surge de uma inquietação em relação à presença dos dispositivos de controle na escola, mais particularmente de uma escada e sua regra que restringe o acesso dos alunos. A hipótese é de que o teatro, especificamente o jogo teatral de Spolin (2003) tem a potencialidade de operar o que Agamben (2007) nomeia uma “profanação”. O estudo envolve a análise do conceito de dispositivo em Foucault (1979; 2004) e Agamben (2009); a descrição da prática intitulada “Experiência Teatral”; e a exposição dos relatos dos alunos, os quais revelam uma aproximação ao que se objetivava inicialmente: propiciar a reflexão sobre a existência dos dispositivos no cotidiano escolar, promovendo um novo uso deles, por meio da profanação da norma.  

    Aspectos imunogenéticos da esclerose múltipla

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    Orientador: Prof. Dr. Rui Fernando PilottoDissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Curso de Pós-Graduação em GenéticaInclui referências: p. 70-81Resumo: A etiologia da esclerose múltipla (EM) ainda é desconhecida, porém, há evidências da participação de fatores genéticos e ambientais na determinação da suscetibilidade a esta doença. No presente trabalho foi feita uma análise dos principais aspectos imunogenéticos implicados na EM que vêm sendo estudados. Encontrou-se que a taxa de concordância em gêmeos monozigóticos é significativamente maior do que em gêmeos dizigóticos, sugerindo a participação de um componente genético na etiologia da EM. A média da herdabilidade da EM foi estimada como sendo aproximadamente 28%; porém ainda não foram identificados os genes que constituem um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento da EM. Há evidências de que os genes do complexo principal de histocompatibilidade (MHC), principalmente os de classe II, das subregiões DR e DQ possam estar envolvidos. Em particular o haplótipo DRB1*1501.DQA1*0102. DQB 1*0602, referente ao fenótipo DR2.Dw2.DQ6 foi encontrado em associação positiva em vários estudos em populações caucasoides. O desequilíbrio de ligação entre os genes DR e DQ dificulta o reconhecimento da contribuição individual de cada alelo. Nos estudos de associação MHC x EM, nota-se heterogeneidade quanto aos critérios de diagnóstico empregados pelos diversos autores e a ausência, na maioria das vezes, de análises em separado dos grupos de pacientes com manifestações clínicas distintas. A despeito da variabilidade dos receptores de célula T (TCRs) encontrados nas células dos pacientes com EM, as moléculas de TCRaB, que são expressas na membrana dessas células, aparentemente apresentam sequências em comum entre si na região de ligação com o complexo antígeno-MHC. Entretanto, os estudos a respeito do envolvimento dos genes TCR na suscetibilidade à EM partem do pressuposto de que o autoantígeno envolvido seja a proteína básica da mielina (MBP). Além disso, alguns estudos sugerem que outras moléculas, como por exemplo a glicoproteína associada à mielina (MAG) e a glicoproteína da mielina do oligodendrócito (MOG), possam servir de alvo da autoimunidade na EM. As citocinas produzidas nos sítios de inflamação no sistema nervoso central também parecem desempenhar papel relevante na imunopatologia da EM
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