1,818 research outputs found

    Bacterial Cholangitis, Cholecystitis, or both in Dogs

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    BACKGROUND: Bacterial cholangitis and cholecystitis are rarely reported, poorly characterized diseases in the dog. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical features of these conditions. ANIMALS: Twenty‐seven client‐owned dogs with bacterial cholangitis, cholecystitis, or both. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective cases series of dogs with bacterial cholangitis, cholecystitis, or both, presenting January 2000 to June 2011 to 4 Veterinary Schools in Ireland/United Kingdom. Interrogation of hospital databases identified all cases with the inclusion criteria; histopathologically confirmed cholangitis or cholecystitis and bile culture/cytology results supporting a bacterial etiology. RESULTS: Twenty‐seven dogs met the inclusion criteria with approximately 460 hepatitis cases documented over the same study period. Typical clinical pathology findings were increases in liver enzyme activities (25/26), hyperbilirubinemia (20/26), and an inflammatory leukogram (21/24). Ultrasound findings, although nonspecific, aided decision‐making in 25/26 cases. The most frequent hepatobiliary bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli (n = 17; 16 cases), Enterococcus spp. (n = 8; 6 cases), and Clostridium spp. (n = 5; 5 cases). Antimicrobial resistance was an important feature of aerobic isolates; 10/16 E. coli isolates resistant to 3 or more antimicrobial classes. Biliary tract rupture complicated nearly one third of cases, associated with significant mortality (4/8). Discharged dogs had a guarded to fair prognosis; 17/18 alive at 2 months, although 5/10 re‐evaluated had persistent liver enzyme elevation 2–12 months later. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Bacterial cholangitis and cholecystitis occur more frequently than suggested by current literature and should be considered in dogs presenting with jaundice and fever, abdominal pain, or an inflammatory leukogram or with ultrasonographic evidence of gallbladder abnormalities

    Framing research on school principals' identities

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    This paper provides a basis for a tentative framework for guiding future research into principals’ identity construction and development. It is situated in the context of persisting emphases placed by government policies on the need for technocratic competencies in principals as a means of demonstrating success defined largely as compliance with demands for the improvement in student test scores. Often this emphasis is at the expense of forwarding a broader view of the need, alongside these, for clear educational values, beliefs and practices that are associated with these. The framework is informed by the theoretical work of Wenger and Bourdieu as well as recent empirical research on the part played by professional identity and emotions in school leadership. In the paper, we highlight different lines of inquiry and the issues they raise for researchers. We argue that the constructions of school leadership identities are located in time, space and place, and emotions reflect complex leadership identities situated within social hierarchies which are part of wider structures and social relations of power and control

    Liquid 4He near the superfluid transition in the presence of a heat current and gravity

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    The effects of a heat current and gravity in liquid 4He near the superfluid transition are investigated for temperatures above and below T_lambda. We present a renormalization-group calculation based on model F for the Green's function in a self-consistent approximation which in quantum many-particle theory is known as the Hartree approximation. The approach can handle a zero average order parameter above and below T_lambda and includes effects of vortices. We calculate the thermal conductivity and the specific heat for all temperatures T and heat currents Q in the critical regime. Furthermore, we calculate the temperature profile. Below T_lambda we find a second correlation length which describes the dephasing of the order parameter field due to vortices. We find dissipation and mutual friction of the superfluid-normal fluid counterflow and calculate the Gorter-Mellink coefficient A. We compare our theoretical results with recent experiments.Comment: 26 pages, 9 figure

    The impact of changes to heroin supply on blood-borne virus notifications and injecting related harms in New South Wales, Australia

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    BACKGROUND: In early 2001 Australia experienced a sudden and unexpected disruption to heroin availability, know as the 'heroin shortage'. This 'shortage has been linked to a decrease in needle and syringe output and therefore possibly a reduction in injecting drug use. We aimed to examine changes, if any, in blood-borne viral infections and presentations for injecting related problems related to injecting drug use following the reduction heroin availability in Australia, in the context of widespread harm reduction measures. METHODS: Time series analysis of State level databases on HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C notifications and hospital and emergency department data. Examination of changes in HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C notifications and hospital and emergency department admissions for injection-related problems following the onset of the heroin shortage; non-parametric curve-fitting of number of hepatitis C notifications among those aged 15–19 years. RESULTS: There were no changes observed in hospital visits for injection-related problems. There was no change related to the onset heroin shortage in the number of hepatitis C notifications among persons aged 15–19 years, but HCV notifications have subsequently decreased in this group. No change occurred in HIV and hepatitis B notifications. CONCLUSION: A marked reduction in heroin supply resulted in no increase in injection-related harm at the community level. However, a delayed decrease in HCV notifications among young people may be related. These changes occurred in a setting with widespread, publicly funded harm reduction initiatives

    Deficiency and Also Transgenic Overexpression of Timp-3 Both Lead to Compromised Bone Mass and Architecture In Vivo

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    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) regulates extracellular matrix via its inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and membrane-bound sheddases. Timp-3 is expressed at multiple sites of extensive tissue remodelling. This extends to bone where its role, however, remains largely unresolved. In this study, we have used Micro-CT to assess bone mass and architecture, histological and histochemical evaluation to characterise the skeletal phenotype of Timp-3 KO mice and have complemented this by also examining similar indices in mice harbouring a Timp-3 transgene driven via a Col-2a-driven promoter to specifically target overexpression to chondrocytes. Our data show that Timp-3 deficiency compromises tibial bone mass and structure in both cortical and trabecular compartments, with corresponding increases in osteoclasts. Transgenic overexpression also generates defects in tibial structure predominantly in the cortical bone along the entire shaft without significant increases in osteoclasts. These alterations in cortical mass significantly compromise predicted tibial load-bearing resistance to torsion in both genotypes. Neither Timp-3 KO nor transgenic mouse growth plates are significantly affected. The impact of Timp-3 deficiency and of transgenic overexpression extends to produce modification in craniofacial bones of both endochondral and intramembranous origins. These data indicate that the levels of Timp-3 are crucial in the attainment of functionally-appropriate bone mass and architecture and that this arises from chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages

    Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of intramuscular quinine in Tanzanian children with severe Falciparum malaria.

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    Although artesunate is clearly superior, parenteral quinine is still used widely for the treatment of severe malaria. A loading-dose regimen has been recommended for 30 years but is still often not used. A population pharmacokinetic study was conducted with 75 Tanzanian children aged 4 months to 8 years with severe malaria who received quinine intramuscularly; 69 patients received a loading dose of 20 mg quinine dihydrochloride (salt)/kg of body weight. Twenty-one patients had plasma quinine concentrations detectable at baseline. A zero-order absorption model with one-compartment disposition pharmacokinetics described the data adequately. Body weight was the only significant covariate and was implemented as an allometric function on clearance and volume parameters. Population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates (and percent relative standard errors [%RSE]) of elimination clearance, central volume of distribution, and duration of zero-order absorption were 0.977 liters/h (6.50%), 16.7 liters (6.39%), and 1.42 h (21.5%), respectively, for a typical patient weighing 11 kg. Quinine exposure was reduced at lower body weights after standard weight-based dosing; there was 18% less exposure over 24 h in patients weighing 5 kg than in those weighing 25 kg. Maximum plasma concentrations after the loading dose were unaffected by body weight. There was no evidence of dose-related drug toxicity with the loading dosing regimen. Intramuscular quinine is rapidly and reliably absorbed in children with severe falciparum malaria. Based on these pharmacokinetic data, a loading dose of 20 mg salt/kg is recommended, provided that no loading dose was administered within 24 h and no routine dose was administered within 12 h of admission. (This study has been registered with Current Controlled Trials under registration number ISRCTN 50258054.)

    The Current State of Performance Appraisal Research and Practice: Concerns, Directions, and Implications

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    On the surface, it is not readily apparent how some performance appraisal research issues inform performance appraisal practice. Because performance appraisal is an applied topic, it is useful to periodically consider the current state of performance research and its relation to performance appraisal practice. This review examines the performance appraisal literature published in both academic and practitioner outlets between 1985 and 1990, briefly discusses the current state of performance appraisal practice, highlights the juxtaposition of research and practice, and suggests directions for further research

    The decline and rise of neighbourhoods: the importance of neighbourhood governance

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    There is a substantial literature on the explanation of neighbourhood change. Most of this literature concentrates on identifying factors and developments behind processes of decline. This paper reviews the literature, focusing on the identification of patterns of neighbourhood change, and argues that the concept of neighbourhood governance is a missing link in attempts to explain these patterns. Including neighbourhood governance in the explanations of neighbourhood change and decline will produce better explanatory models and, finally, a better view about what is actually steering neighbourhood change
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