6,116 research outputs found

    Influence of attractive van der Waals interactions on the optimal excitations in thermocapillary-driven spreading

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    Recent investigations of microfluidic flows have focused on manipulating the motion of very thin liquid films by modulating the surface tension through an applied streamwise temperature gradient. The extent to which the choice of contact line model affects the flow and stability of such thermocapillary-driven films is not completely understood. Regardless of the contact line model used, the linearized disturbance operator corresponding to the evolution of the film height is non-normal, and a generalized non-modal stability analysis is required. Surprisingly, early predictions of frontal instability that stemmed from conventional modal analysis of thermocapillary flow on a flat, infinite precursor film showed excellent agreement with experiment. Within the more rigorous framework provided by a generalized stability analysis, this work investigates the transient dynamics and amplification of optimal disturbances subject to a finite precursor film generated by attractive van der Waals forces. Convergence of the disturbance growth rates and perturbed shapes to the asymptotic solutions obtained by conventional linear stability analysis occurs early in the spreading process. In addition, the level of transient disturbance amplification is minimal. The equations governing thermocapillary-driven spreading exhibit a small degree of non-normality, which explains the source of agreement between modal theory and experiment. The more rigorous generalized stability analysis presented here, however, affords critical insight into the types of disturbances leading to maximum unstable growth and the exact influence of the contact line model used

    Following the Money 2011: How the 50 States Rate in Providing Online Access to Government Spending Data

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    Grades states' progress in launching or enhancing transparency 2.0 Web sites that provide comprehensive, one-stop access to searchable and downloadable databases of government spending. Outlines benefits such as savings, challenges, and recommendations

    On a generalized approach to the linear stability of spatially nonuniform thin film flows

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    The presence of a deformable free surface in thin films driven to spread by body or shear forces gives rise to base states that are spatially nonuniform. This nonuniformity produces linearized disturbance operators that are non-normal and an eigenvalue spectrum that does not necessarily predict stability behavior. The falling film provides a simple example for demonstrating a more generalized, rigorous nonmodal approach to linear stability for free surface flows. Calculations of the pseudospectra and maximum disturbance amplification in this system, however, reveal weak effects of non-normality and transient growth such that the modal growth rate is rapidly recovered. Subdominant modes contribute little energy to the leading eigenvector because the oscillatory behavior is rapidly damped by surface tension. Generalization of these results to numerous other lubrication flows involving surface tension suggests similarly weak non-normality and transient growth