100 research outputs found

    Cryogenic Characterization of FBK HD Near-UV Sensitive SiPMs

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    We report on the characterization of near-ultraviolet high density silicon photomultiplier (\SiPM) developed at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (\FBK) at cryogenic temperature. A dedicated setup was built to measure the primary dark noise and correlated noise of the \SiPMs\ between 40 and 300~K. Moreover, an analysis program and data acquisition system were developed to allow the precise characterization of these parameters, some of which can vary up to 7 orders of magnitude between room temperature and 40~K. We demonstrate that it is possible to operate the \FBK\ near-ultraviolet high density \SiPMs\ at temperatures lower than 100~K with a dark rate below 0.01 cps/mm2^2 and total correlated noise probability below 35\% at an over-voltage of 6~V. These results are relevant for the development of future cryogenic particle detectors using \SiPMs\ as photosensors

    Search for modulations of the solar Be-7 flux in the next-generation neutrino observatory LENA

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    A next-generation liquid-scintillator detector will be able to perform high-statistics measurements of the solar neutrino flux. In LENA, solar Be-7 neutrinos are expected to cause 1.7x10^4 electron recoil events per day in a fiducial volume of 35 kilotons. Based on this signal, a search for periodic modulations on sub-percent level can be conducted, surpassing the sensitivity of current detectors by at least a factor of 20. The range of accessible periods reaches from several minutes, corresponding to modulations induced by helioseismic g-modes, to tens of years, allowing to study long-term changes in solar fusion rates.Comment: 15 pages, 9 figure

    Borexino : geo-neutrino measurement at Gran Sasso, Italy

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    Geo-neutrinos, electron anti-neutrinos produced in beta-decays of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes in the Earth, are a unique direct probe of our planet's interior. After a brief introduction of the geo-neutrinos' properties and of the main aims of their study, we discuss the features of a detector which has recently provided breakthrough achievements in the field, Borexino, a massive, calorimetric liquid scintillator detector installed at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. With its unprecedented radiopurity levels achieved in the core of the detection medium, it is the only experiment in operation able to study in real time solar neutrino interactions in the challenging sub-MeV energy region. Its superior technical properties allowed Borexino also to provide a clean detection of terrestrial neutrinos. Therefore, the description of the characteristics of the detected geo-neutrino signal and of the corresponding geological implications are the main core of the discussion contained in this work

    Study of cosmogenic activation above ground for the DarkSide-20k experiment

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    The activation of materials due to exposure to cosmic rays may become an important background source for experiments investigating rare event phenomena. DarkSide-20k, currently under construction at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, is a direct detection experiment for galactic dark matter particles, using a two-phase liquid-argon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) filled with 49.7 tonnes (active mass) of Underground Argon (UAr) depleted in 39Ar. Despite the outstanding capability of discriminating / background in argon TPCs, this background must be considered because of induced dead time or accidental coincidences mimicking dark-matter signals and it is relevant for low-threshold electron-counting measurements. Here, the cosmogenic activity of relevant long-lived radioisotopes induced in the experiment has been estimated to set requirements and procedures during preparation of the experiment and to check that it is not dominant over primordial radioactivity; particular attention has been paid to the activation of the 120 t of UAr used in DarkSide-20k. Expected exposures above ground and production rates, either measured or calculated, have been considered in detail. From the simulated counting rates in the detector due to cosmogenic isotopes, it is concluded that activation in copper and stainless steel is not problematic. The activity of 39Ar induced during extraction, purification and transport on surface is evaluated to be 2.8% of the activity measured in UAr by DarkSide-50 experiment, which used the same underground source, and thus considered acceptable. Other isotopes in the UAr such as 37Ar and 3H are shown not to be relevant due to short half-life and assumed purification methods

    Sensitivity projections for a dual-phase argon TPC optimized for light dark matter searches through the ionization channel

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    Dark matter lighter than 10  GeV/c2 encompasses a promising range of candidates. A conceptual design for a new detector, DarkSide-LowMass, is presented, based on the DarkSide-50 detector and progress toward DarkSide-20k, optimized for a low-threshold electron-counting measurement. Sensitivity to light dark matter is explored for various potential energy thresholds and background rates. These studies show that DarkSide-LowMass can achieve sensitivity to light dark matter down to the solar neutrino fog for GeV-scale masses and significant sensitivity down to 10  MeV/c2 considering the Migdal effect or interactions with electrons. Requirements for optimizing the detector’s sensitivity are explored, as are potential sensitivity gains from modeling and mitigating spurious electron backgrounds that may dominate the signal at the lowest energies

    The Electronics and Data Acquisition System of the DarkSide Dark Matter Search

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    It is generally inferred from astronomical measurements that Dark Matter (DM) comprises approximately 27\% of the energy-density of the universe. If DM is a subatomic particle, a possible candidate is a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP), and the DarkSide-50 (DS) experiment is a direct search for evidence of WIMP-nuclear collisions. DS is located underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, and consists of three active, embedded components; an outer water veto (CTF), a liquid scintillator veto (LSV), and a liquid argon (LAr) time projection chamber (TPC). This paper describes the data acquisition and electronic systems of the DS detectors, designed to detect the residual ionization from such collisions

    Study on cosmogenic activation above ground for the DarkSide-20k project

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    The activation of materials due to the exposure to cosmic rays may become an important background source for experiments investigating rare event phenomena. DarkSide-20k is a direct detection experiment for galactic dark matter particles, using a two-phase liquid argon time projection chamber filled with 49.7 tonnes (active mass) of Underground Argon (UAr) depleted in 39Ar. Here, the cosmogenic activity of relevant long-lived radioisotopes induced in the argon and other massive components of the set-up has been estimated; production of 120 t of radiopure UAr is foreseen. The expected exposure above ground and production rates, either measured or calculated, have been considered. From the simulated counting rates in the detector due to cosmogenic isotopes, it is concluded that activation in copper and stainless steel is not problematic. Activation of titanium, considered in early designs but not used in the final design, is discussed. The activity of 39Ar induced during extraction, purification and transport on surface, in baseline conditions, is evaluated to be 2.8% of the activity measured in UAr from the same source, and thus considered acceptable. Other products in the UAr such as 37Ar and 3H are shown to not be relevant due to short half-life and assumed purification methods

    Measurement of isotopic separation of argon with the prototype of the cryogenic distillation plant Aria for dark matter searches

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    The Aria cryogenic distillation plant, located in Sardinia, Italy, is a key component of the DarkSide-20k experimental program for WIMP dark matter searches at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. Aria is designed to purify the argon, extracted from underground wells in Colorado, USA, and used as the DarkSide-20k target material, to detector-grade quality. In this paper, we report the first measurement of argon isotopic separation by distillation with the 26 m tall Aria prototype. We discuss the measurement of the operating parameters of the column and the observation of the simultaneous separation of the three stable argon isotopes: 36Ar , 38Ar , and 40Ar . We also provide a detailed comparison of the experimental results with commercial process simulation software. This measurement of isotopic separation of argon is a significant achievement for the project, building on the success of the initial demonstration of isotopic separation of nitrogen using the same equipment in 2019

    Directionality of nuclear recoils in a liquid argon time projection chamber

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    The direct search for dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) is performed by detecting nuclear recoils (NR) produced in a target material from the WIMP elastic scattering. A promising experimental strategy for direct dark matter search employs argon dual-phase time projection chambers (TPC). One of the advantages of the TPC is the capability to detect both the scintillation and charge signals produced by NRs. Furthermore, the existence of a drift electric field in the TPC breaks the rotational symmetry: the angle between the drift field and the momentum of the recoiling nucleus can potentially affect the charge recombination probability in liquid argon and then the relative balance between the two signal channels. This fact could make the detector sensitive to the directionality of the WIMP-induced signal, enabling unmistakable annual and daily modulation signatures for future searches aiming for discovery. The Recoil Directionality (ReD) experiment was designed to probe for such directional sensitivity. The TPC of ReD was irradiated with neutrons at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, and data were taken with 72 keV NRs of known recoil directions. The direction-dependent liquid argon charge recombination model by Cataudella et al. was adopted and a likelihood statistical analysis was performed, which gave no indications of significant dependence of the detector response to the recoil direction. The aspect ratio R of the initial ionization cloud is estimated to be 1.037 +/- 0.027 and the upper limit is R < 1.072 with 90% confidence levelComment: 20 pages, 10 figures, submitted to Eur. Phys. J.

    Sensitivity projections for a dual-phase argon TPC optimized for light dark matter searches through the ionization channel

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