1,498 research outputs found

    Medication administration evaluation tool design: an expert panel review

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    Background: Tools currently available to evaluate nurse medication administration practices have limitations and are either not validated or have poor reliability. Aim: To identify criteria and content for inclusion in a tool to evaluate medication administration by nurses in the clinical setting, using an expert panel. Methods: A peer review process using an expert multidisciplinary panel rated the relevance of the content on three tools; Medication Administration Safety Assessment Tool, Medication with Respect Tool and Clinical Skills Assessment Tool, using a four-point rating scale. Expert opinion was provided on relevance of content, rating scales and frequency of nurse evaluation. The level of agreement was analysed by item content validity index, mean item content validity index, mean expert proportion, scale content validity index with universal agreement, probability of chance agreement and a modified kappa rating. Qualitative themes were also reviewed. Findings: The item and scale content validity index and the kappa index both rated the Medication Administration Safety Assessment Tool and Clinical Skills Assessment Tool as excellent. For the Medication with Respect Tool less than half of the item content validity index ratings rated as good and the kappa index rated as excellent, therefore the scale content validity did not achieve a good rating. Conclusions: The expert panel review identified items of high level of agreement for relevance and determined that content needed to be clear, concise, observable, generic and practical to be useful for all nurses. Self-evaluation, feedback and a developmental plan were also key criteria

    The Stargazin-Related Protein {gamma}7 Interacts with the mRNA-Binding Protein Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A2 and Regulates the Stability of Specific mRNAs, Including CaV2.2

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    The role(s) of the novel stargazin-like {gamma}-subunit proteins remain controversial. We have shown previously that the neuron-specific {gamma}7 suppresses the expression of certain calcium channels, particularly CaV2.2, and is therefore unlikely to operate as a calcium channel subunit. We now show that the effect of {gamma}7 on CaV2.2 expression is via an increase in the degradation rate of CaV2.2 mRNA and hence a reduction of CaV2.2 protein level. Furthermore, exogenous expression of {gamma}7 in PC12 cells also decreased the endogenous CaV2.2 mRNA level. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous {gamma}7 with short-hairpin RNAs produced a reciprocal enhancement of CaV2.2 mRNA stability and an increase in endogenous calcium currents in PC12 cells. Moreover, both endogenous and expressed {gamma}7 are present on intracellular membranes, rather than the plasma membrane. The cytoplasmic C terminus of {gamma}7 is essential for all its effects, and we show that {gamma}7 binds directly via its C terminus to a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP A2), which also binds to a motif in CaV2.2 mRNA, and is associated with native CaV2.2 mRNA in PC12 cells. The expression of hnRNP A2 enhances CaV2.2 IBa, and this enhancement is prevented by a concentration of {gamma}7 that alone has no effect on IBa. The effect of {gamma}7 is selective for certain mRNAs because it had no effect on {alpha}2{delta}-2 mRNA stability, but it decreased the mRNA stability for the potassium-chloride cotransporter, KCC1, which contains a similar hnRNP A2 binding motif to that in CaV2.2 mRNA. Our results indicate that {gamma}7 plays a role in stabilizing CaV2.2 mRNA

    Inequalities in the incidence of cervical cancer in South East England 2001–2005: an investigation of population risk factors

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    BACKGROUND: The incidence of cervical cancer varies dramatically, both globally and within individual countries. The age-standardised incidence of cervical cancer was compared across primary care trusts (PCTs) in South East England, taking into account the prevalence of known behavioural risk factors, screening coverage and the deprivation of the area. METHODS: Data on 2,231 cases diagnosed between 2001 and 2005 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry, and data on risk factors and screening coverage were collated from publicly available sources. Age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for each PCT using cases of squamous cell carcinoma in the screening age group (25-64 years). RESULTS: The age-standardised incidence rate for cervical cancer in South East England was 6.7 per 100,000 population (European standard) but varied 3.1 fold between individual PCTs. Correlations between the age-standardised incidence rate and smoking prevalence, teenage conception rates, and deprivation were highly significant at the PCT level (p < 0.001). However, screening coverage was not associated with the incidence of cervical cancer at the PCT level. Poisson regression indicated that these variables were all highly correlated and could not determine the level of independent contribution at a population level. CONCLUSION: There is excess disease burden within South East England. Significant public health gains can be made by reducing exposure to known risk factors at a population level

    Association of human papillomavirus 16 E2 with Rad50-interacting protein 1 enhances viral DNA replication

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    This work was supported by a Royal Society university research fellowship awarded to J.L.P. (UF110010). K.C.-L. is supported by a Medical Research Council research grant awarded to J.L.P. (MR/N023498/1).Rad50-interacting protein 1 (Rint1) associates with the DNA damage response protein Rad50 during the transition from the S phase to the G2/M phase and functions in radiation-induced G2 checkpoint control. It has also been demonstrated that Rint1 is essential in vesicle trafficking from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through an interaction with Zeste-White 10 (ZW10). We have isolated a novel interaction between Rint1 and the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) transcription and replication factor E2. E2 binds to Rint1 within its ZW10 interaction domain, and we show that in the absence of E2, Rint1 is localized to the ER and associates with ZW10. E2 expression results in a disruption of the Rint1-ZW10 interaction and an accumulation of nuclear Rint1, coincident with a significant reduction in vesicle movement from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. Interestingly, nuclear Rint1 and members of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex were found in distinct E2 nuclear foci, which peaked during mid-S phase, indicating that the recruitment of Rint1 to E2 foci within the nucleus may also result in the recruitment of this DNA damage-sensing protein complex. We show that exogenous Rint1 expression enhances E2-dependent virus replication. Conversely, the overexpression of a truncated Rint1 protein that retains the E2 binding domain but not the Rad50 binding domain acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of E2-dependent HPV replication. Put together, these experiments demonstrate that the interaction between Rint1 and E2 has an important function in HPV replication.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    The effectiveness of web-based interventions designed to decrease alcohol consumption – a systematic review

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    OBJECTIVE To review the published literature on the effectiveness of web-based interventions designed to decrease consumption of alcohol and/or prevent alcohol abuse. METHOD Relevant articles published up to, and including, May 2006 were identified through electronic searches of Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, Cochrane Library, ASSIA, Web of Science and Science Direct. Reference lists of all articles identified for inclusion were checked for articles of relevance. An article was included if its stated or implied purpose was to evaluate a web-based intervention designed to decrease consumption of alcohol and/or to prevent alcohol abuse. Studies were reliably selected and quality-assessed, and data were independently extracted and interpreted by two authors. RESULTS Initial searches identified 191 articles of which 10 were eligible for inclusion. Of these, five provided a process evaluation only, with the remaining five providing some pre-to post-intervention measure of effectiveness. In general the percentage quality criteria met was relatively low and only one of the 10 articles selected was a randomized control trial. CONCLUSION The current review provides inconsistent evidence on the effectiveness of eIectronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) for alcohol use. Process research suggests that web-based interventions are generally well received. However further controlled trials are needed to fully investigate their efficacy, to determine which elements are keys to outcome and to understand if different elements are required in order to engage low- and high-risk drinkers

    Missing the full story: First estimates of carbon deposition rates for the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis

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    Globally, momentum to restore damaged habitats has been increasing. For example, the number of European shellfish restoration projects has quadrupled in the past 3 years. In line with the increasing focus on both restoration and climate change mitigation efforts, this study highlights how these two practices can complement each other.This experimental study quantifies the active and passive sediment deposition associated with the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and the organic and inorganic carbon fractions of the deposits. Treatments included ‘dead’, ‘live’, and control to account for (i) passive deposition, (ii) biodeposition and passive deposition, and (iii) background deposition respectively. By utilizing these data, the expected carbon deposition associated with a restored flat oyster bed was investigated.The experiment was conducted ex situ, with natural seawater input. Covariate data on temperature, suspended particulate influx, salinity, and oxygen availability were recorded. Enhanced sedimentation (2.9 times) and organic carbon deposition (three times) were observed in the presence of living oysters, compared with the control. The shell structure of the oysters had no influence on passive sedimentation in this study.By developing a full understanding of the ecosystem services (functioning, supporting, regulating, and cultural) provided by a habitat, it becomes possible to quantify overall ecosystem function. This evidence is key in advising policymakers, restoration funders, and marine spatial planners on the connection between keystone species restoration, ecosystem service restoration, and conservation management.The enhancement of benthopelagic coupling by the European flat oyster, evidenced here for the first time, is contextualized from the perspective of quantification of ecosystem service provision for both restoration practices and blue carbon store management. The data produced in this study are discussed comparatively with work that has focused on other species from both Europe and the US

    WALLABY Early Science - I. The NGC 7162 Galaxy Group

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    We present Widefield ASKAP L-band Legacy All-sky Blind Survey (WALLABY) early science results from the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) observations of the NGC 7162 galaxy group. We use archival HIPASS and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of this group to validate the new ASKAP data and the data reduction pipeline ASKAPsoft. We detect six galaxies in the neutral hydrogen (HI) 21-cm line, expanding the NGC 7162 group membership from four to seven galaxies. Two of the new detections are also the first HI detections of the dwarf galaxies, AM 2159-434 and GALEXASC J220338.65-431128.7, for which we have measured velocities of cz=2558cz=2558 and cz=2727cz=2727 km s1^{-1}, respectively. We confirm that there is extended HI emission around NGC 7162 possibly due to past interactions in the group as indicated by the 4040^{\circ} offset between the kinematic and morphological major axes for NGC 7162A, and its HI richness. Taking advantage of the increased resolution (factor of 1.5\sim1.5) of the ASKAP data over archival ATCA observations, we fit a tilted ring model and use envelope tracing to determine the galaxies' rotation curves. Using these we estimate the dynamical masses and find, as expected, high dark matter fractions of fDM0.810.95f_{\mathrm{DM}}\sim0.81-0.95 for all group members. The ASKAP data are publicly available.Comment: 20 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    A blue carbon model for the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and its application in environmental restoration

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    1. Historically, considerations of the carbon budget of bivalve shellfish have disproportionately focused on the cycling of carbon in shell alone, overlooking respiratory release and the potential role of bivalve shellfish habitats in the stabilization of sediment, and therefore of carbon. 2. Data on carbon cycling are key to providing essential evidence to inform evaluation of management strategies and the business case for restoration of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) habitats. The purpose of this study was to examine the flat oyster carbon budget at the scale of the individual and to set out a framework to enable future comparisons of carbon budgets between ecosystems. 3. Through the combination of previously established work with measurements of calcification and respiration both in situ and ex situ, a carbon budget at the scale of a single oyster was determined. 4. In consideration of the flat oyster carbon budget, the inclusion of the deposition of sedimentary carbon, as well as carbon stored in shell, balanced with the release of carbon through respiration and calcification suggests that these habitats are unlikely to be significant carbon sinks in the context of global climate change mitigation. However, the recovery of flat oyster beds is likely to facilitate the accretion of substantial carbon stocks that are nevertheless important in conservation management

    An Australian longitudinal pilot study examining health determinants of cardiac outcomes 12 months post percutaneous coronary intervention

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    Background Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a very common revascularisation procedure for coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiac outcomes, health related quality of life (HRQoL), resilience and adherence behaviours in patients who have undergone a PCI at two time points (6 and 12 months) following their procedure. Methods A longitudinal pilot study was conducted to observe the cardiac outcomes across a cohort of patients who had undergone a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Participants who had undergone PCI 6 months prior were invited. Those participants who met the inclusion criteria and provided consent then completed a telephone survey (time point 1). These participants were then contacted 6 months later (i.e. 12 months post-intervention, time point 2) and the measures were repeated. Results All patients (n = 51) were recorded as being alive at time point 1. The multiple model indicated that controlling for other factors, gender was significantly associated with a linear combination of outcome measures (p = 0.004). The effect was moderate in magnitude (partial-η2 = 0.303), where males performed significantly better than females 6 months after the PCI procedure physically and with mood. Follow-up univariate ANOVAs indicated that gender differences were grounded in the scale measuring depression (PHQ9) (p = 0.005) and the physical component score of the short form measuring HRQoL (SF12-PCS) (p = 0.003). Thirteen patients were lost to follow-up between time points 1 and 2. One patient was confirmed to have passed away. The pattern of correlations between outcome measures at time point 2 revealed statistically significant negative correlation between the PHQ instrument and the resilience scale (CD-RISC) (r = -0.611; p < 0.001); and the physical component score of the SF-12 instrument (r = -0.437; p = 0.054). Conclusions Men were performing better than women in the 6 months post-PCI, particularly in the areas of mood (depression) and physical health. This pilot results indicate gender-sensitive practices are recommended particularly up to 6 months post-PCI. Any gender differences observed at 6 month appear to disappear at 12 months post-PCI. Further research into the management of mood particularly for women post-PCI is warranted. A more detailed inquiry related to access/attendance to secondary prevention is also warranted