23,743 research outputs found

    Self-Repairing Codes for Distributed Storage - A Projective Geometric Construction

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    Self-Repairing Codes (SRC) are codes designed to suit the need of coding for distributed networked storage: they not only allow stored data to be recovered even in the presence of node failures, they also provide a repair mechanism where as little as two live nodes can be contacted to regenerate the data of a failed node. In this paper, we propose a new instance of self-repairing codes, based on constructions of spreads coming from projective geometry. We study some of their properties to demonstrate the suitability of these codes for distributed networked storage.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Finding All Nash Equilibria of a Finite Game Using Polynomial Algebra

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    The set of Nash equilibria of a finite game is the set of nonnegative solutions to a system of polynomial equations. In this survey article we describe how to construct certain special games and explain how to find all the complex roots of the corresponding polynomial systems, including all the Nash equilibria. We then explain how to find all the complex roots of the polynomial systems for arbitrary generic games, by polyhedral homotopy continuation starting from the solutions to the specially constructed games. We describe the use of Groebner bases to solve these polynomial systems and to learn geometric information about how the solution set varies with the payoff functions. Finally, we review the use of the Gambit software package to find all Nash equilibria of a finite game.Comment: Invited contribution to Journal of Economic Theory; includes color figure

    Thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 atomic quintuple thin films

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    Motivated by recent experimental realizations of quintuple atomic layer films of Bi2Te3,the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, of the quintuple layer is calculated and found to increase by a factor of 10 (ZT = 7.2) compared to that of the bulk at room temperature. The large enhancement in ZT results from the change in the distribution of the valence band density of modes brought about by the quantum confinement in the thin film. The theoretical model uses ab initio electronic structure calculations (VASP) with full quantum-mechanical structure relaxation combined with a Landauer formalism for the linear-response transport coefficients.Comment: 4 figures, submitted to AP

    From scattering theory to complex wave dynamics in non-hermitian PT-symmetric resonators

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    I review how methods from mesoscopic physics can be applied to describe the multiple wave scattering and complex wave dynamics in non-hermitian PT-symmetric resonators, where an absorbing region is coupled symmetrically to an amplifying region. Scattering theory serves as a convenient tool to classify the symmetries beyond the single-channel case and leads to effective descriptions which can be formulated in the energy domain (via Hamiltonians) and in the time domain (via time evolution operators). These models can then be used to identify the mesoscopic time and energy scales which govern the spectral transition from real to complex eigenvalues. The possible presence of magneto-optical effects (a finite vector potential) in multichannel systems leads to a variant (termed PTT' symmetry) which imposes the same spectral constraints as PT symmetry. I also provide multichannel versions of generalized flux-conservation laws.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures, minireview for a theme issue, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

    Energy transport and fluctuations in small conductors

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    The Landauer-B\"uttiker formalism provides a simple and insightful way for investigating many phenomena in mesoscopic physics. By this approach we derive general formulas for the energy properties and apply them to the basic setups. Of particular interest are the noise properties. We show that energy current fluctuations can be induced by zero-point fluctuations and we discuss the implications of this result.Comment: Revised and corrected versio

    Tunnel Magnetoresistance of a Single-Molecule Junction

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    Based on the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) technique and the Landauer-B\"{u}ttiker theory, the possibility of a molecular spin-electronic device, which consists of a single C60_{60} molecule attached to two ferromagnetic electrodes with finite cross sections, is investigated. By studying the coherent spin-dependent transport through the energy levels of the molecule, it is shown that the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of the molecular junction depends on the applied voltages and the number of contact points between the device electrodes and the molecule. The TMR values more than 60% are obtained by adjusting the related parameters.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Helical scattering and valleytronics in bilayer graphene

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    We describe an angularly asymmetric interface-scattering mechanism which allows to spatially separate the electrons in the two low-energy valleys of bilayer graphene. The effect occurs at electrostatically defined interfaces separating regions of different pseudospin polarization, and is associated with the helical winding of the pseudospin vector across the interface, which breaks the reflection symmetry in each valley. Electrons are transmitted with a preferred direction of up to 60° over a large energetic range in one of the valleys, and down to −60° in the other. In a Y-junction geometry, this can be used to create and detect valley polarization
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