4,389 research outputs found

    PIN8 PATIENT FLOW PATHWAY FOR PATIENTS ADMITTED TO CRITICAL CARE UNITS WITH A SEVERE BACTERIAL INFECTION IN ENGLAND

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    Reasoning and rehabilitation cognitive skills programme for mentally disordered offenders: predictors of outcome

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    AIM To investigate factors predicting treatment completion and treatment outcome of the Reasoning and Rehabili tation Mental Health Programme ( R&R2MHP ) cognitive skills programme for mentally disordered offenders (MDOs). METHODS Secondary analysis of data previously obtain ed from 97 male patients who were sectioned and detained under the U nited Kingdom Mental Health Act in low, medium and high security hospitals and who had completed R&R2MHP. Predictors of treatment completion included background variables and five outcome measures: four self - reported measures of violent attitudes, social problem - solvin g skills, reactive anger and locus of control and an objective measure of behaviour on the ward that was completed by staff. Completion of the 16 session programme, which was delivered on a weekly basis, was classified as ≥ 12 sessions. RESULTS It was fou nd that the R&R2MHP is appropriate for delivery to participants of different ages, ethnic background, and at different levels of security without the completion rate or treatment effectiveness being compromised. Participants taking oral typical psychotropi c medication were over seven times more likely to complete the programme than other participants. Behavioural disturbance on the ward prior to commencing the programme predicted non - completion (medium effect size). As far as treatment completion was concer ned, none of the background factors predicted treatment effectiveness (age, ethnic background, level of security, number of previous convictions and number of previous hospital admissions). The best predictor of treatment effectiveness was attitude towards violence suggesting that this should be the primary outcome measure in future research evaluating outcomes of the R&R2MHP cognitive skills program. CONCLUSION The findings suggest that a stable mental state is a key factor that predicts treatment completion

    Precise Null Pointer Analysis Through Global Value Numbering

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    Precise analysis of pointer information plays an important role in many static analysis techniques and tools today. The precision, however, must be balanced against the scalability of the analysis. This paper focusses on improving the precision of standard context and flow insensitive alias analysis algorithms at a low scalability cost. In particular, we present a semantics-preserving program transformation that drastically improves the precision of existing analyses when deciding if a pointer can alias NULL. Our program transformation is based on Global Value Numbering, a scheme inspired from compiler optimizations literature. It allows even a flow-insensitive analysis to make use of branch conditions such as checking if a pointer is NULL and gain precision. We perform experiments on real-world code to measure the overhead in performing the transformation and the improvement in the precision of the analysis. We show that the precision improves from 86.56% to 98.05%, while the overhead is insignificant.Comment: 17 pages, 1 section in Appendi

    Spin-valley phase diagram of the two-dimensional metal-insulator transition

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    Using symmetry breaking strain to tune the valley occupation of a two-dimensional (2D) electron system in an AlAs quantum well, together with an applied in-plane magnetic field to tune the spin polarization, we independently control the system's valley and spin degrees of freedom and map out a spin-valley phase diagram for the 2D metal-insulator transition. The insulating phase occurs in the quadrant where the system is both spin- and valley-polarized. This observation establishes the equivalent roles of spin and valley degrees of freedom in the 2D metal-insulator transition.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Reconstructing communities in cluster trials?

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    BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the ethics of cluster trials, but no literature on the uncertainties in defining communities in relation to the scientific notion of the cluster in collaborative biomedical research. METHODS: The views of participants in a community-based cluster randomised trial (CRT) in Mumbai, India, were solicited regarding their understanding and views on community. We conducted two focus group discussions with local residents and 20 semi-structured interviews with different respondent groups. On average, ten participants took part in each focus group, most of them women aged 18-55. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten residents (nine women and one man) lasting approximately an hour each and seven individuals (five men and two women) identified by residents as local leaders or decision-makers. In addition, we interviewed two Municipal Corporators (locally elected government officials involved in urban planning and development) and one representative of a political party located in a slum community. RESULTS: Residents' sense of community largely matched the scientific notion of the cluster, defined by the investigators as a geographic area, but their perceived needs were not entirely met by the trial. CONCLUSION: We examined whether the possibility of a conceptual mismatch between 'clusters' and 'communities' is likely to have methodological implications for a study or to lead to potential social disharmony because of the research interventions, arguing that it is important to take social factors into account as well as statistical efficiency when choosing the size and type of clusters and designing a trial. One method of informing such a design would be to use existing forums for community engagement to explore individuals' primary sense of community or social group and, where possible, to fit clusters around them. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Register: ISRCTN56183183 Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2012/09/003004

    Preferences and Perceived Barriers to Treatment for Depression during the Perinatal Period

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    Abstract Background and methods: Little is understood about why few women during the perinatal period will use depression treatment. In particular, beliefs and barriers related to depression treatment use have not been studied. In this study, African American and white pregnant women (n = 108) who screened ≥10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were asked about recent formal and informal treatment use in prenatal care settings. Confidence in the helpfulness of treatment, providers, and settings and perceived barriers to treatment were assessed and compared between African American and white women. Results: Pregnant women overall reported low rates of formal treatment use but frequently sought help from informal sources, such as friends, family, and printed materials. All women expressed greatest confidence in psychosocial treatments and lowest confidence in antidepressants. African American women reported less confidence in advice from family and friends and in antidepressants than did white women. Women expressed greatest confidence in treatments delivered by mental health professionals and religious leaders. African American women sought help more frequently and had significantly more confidence in religious leaders as treatment deliverers than white women. Women had greatest confidence in treatments delivered in professional and home settings, with African American women expressing greater confidence in religious settings than white women. All women reported greatest concern with structural barriers, compared with attitudinal and knowledge barriers. Conclusions: Understanding patterns of treatment use, beliefs, and barriers to depression treatment provides important information for tailoring and improving appropriate use of mental health treatment in women during the perinatal period.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/63189/1/jwh.2007.0631.pd

    Targeting Chemoprevention of Colorectal Cancer to Those Who Are Likely to Respond

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    In the past four decades, chemoprevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been the subject of many epidemiologic and intervention trials of naturally occurring or pharmacologic agents. Recently, the positioning of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors as a viable option in this context was a major breakthrough; however, it was hampered by adverse cardiovascular events. This review questions whether chemopreventive measures for CRC are ready to be used in mass or individual applications, standing alone or in combination with other CRC-preventive measures. It also discusses steps that may be undertaken to explore this field further

    Manipulating infrared photons using plasmons in transparent graphene superlattices

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    Superlattices are artificial periodic nanostructures which can control the flow of electrons. Their operation typically relies on the periodic modulation of the electric potential in the direction of electron wave propagation. Here we demonstrate transparent graphene superlattices which can manipulate infrared photons utilizing the collective oscillations of carriers, i.e., plasmons of the ensemble of multiple graphene layers. The superlattice is formed by depositing alternating wafer-scale graphene sheets and thin insulating layers, followed by patterning them all together into 3-dimensional photonic-crystal-like structures. We demonstrate experimentally that the collective oscillation of Dirac fermions in such graphene superlattices is unambiguously nonclassical: compared to doping single layer graphene, distributing carriers into multiple graphene layers strongly enhances the plasmonic resonance frequency and magnitude, which is fundamentally different from that in a conventional semiconductor superlattice. This property allows us to construct widely tunable far-infrared notch filters with 8.2 dB rejection ratio and terahertz linear polarizers with 9.5 dB extinction ratio, using a superlattice with merely five graphene atomic layers. Moreover, an unpatterned superlattice shields up to 97.5% of the electromagnetic radiations below 1.2 terahertz. This demonstration also opens an avenue for the realization of other transparent mid- and far-infrared photonic devices such as detectors, modulators, and 3-dimensional meta-material systems.Comment: under revie

    Quantum integrability of the Alday-Arutyunov-Frolov model

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    We investigate the quantum integrability of the Alday-Arutyunov-Frolov (AAF) model by calculating the three-particle scattering amplitude at the first non-trivial order and showing that the S-matrix is factorizable at this order. We consider a more general fermionic model and find a necessary constraint to ensure its integrability at quantum level. We then show that the quantum integrability of the AAF model follows from this constraint. In the process, we also correct some missed points in earlier works.Comment: 40 pages; Replaced with published version. Appendix and comments adde

    Entanglement in nuclear quadrupole resonance

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    Entangled quantum states are an important element of quantum information techniques. We determine the requirements for states of quadrupolar nuclei with spins >1/2 to be entangled. It was shown that entanglement is achieved at low temperature by applying a magnetic field to a quadrupolar nuclei possess quadrupole moments, which interacts with the electricfield gradient produced by the charge distribution in their surroundings.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figure
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