232,359 research outputs found

    Conductivity rules in the Fermi and charge-spin separated liquid

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    Ioffe-Larkin rule applies for the pure charge-spin separation regardless of its dimensionality. Here, an extension to this rule as a result of the coexistence of spinon, holon and electron as a single entity in the 2-dimensional (2D) system is derived, which is also in accordance with the original rule.Comment: To be published in Physica

    Studies of dissipative standing shock waves around black holes

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    We investigate the dynamical structure of advective accretion flow around stationary as well as rotating black holes. For a suitable choice of input parameters, such as, accretion rate (M˙\dot {\cal M}) and angular momentum (λ\lambda), global accretion solution may include a shock wave. The post shock flow is located at few tens of Schwarzchild radius and it is generally very hot and dense. This successfully mimics the so called Compton cloud which is believed to be responsible for emitting hard radiations. Due to the radiative loss, a significant energy from the accreting matter is removed and the shock moves forward towards the black hole in order to maintain the pressure balance across it. We identify the effective area of the parameter space (M˙λ\dot {\cal M} - \lambda) which allows accretion flows to have some energy dissipation at the shock (ΔE)(\Delta {\cal E}). As the dissipation is increased, the parameter space is reduced and finally disappears when the dissipation is reached its critical value. The dissipation has a profound effect on the dynamics of post-shock flow. By moving forward, an unstable shock whose oscillation causes Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in the emitted radiation, will produce oscillations of high frequency. Such an evolution of QPOs has been observed in several black hole candidates during their outbursts.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures, accepted by MNRA

    Collective force generated by multiple biofilaments can exceed the sum of forces due to individual ones

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    Collective dynamics and force generation by cytoskeletal filaments are crucial in many cellular processes. Investigating growth dynamics of a bundle of N independent cytoskeletal filaments pushing against a wall, we show that chemical switching (ATP/GTP hydrolysis) leads to a collective phenomenon that is currently unknown. Obtaining force-velocity relations for different models that capture chemical switching, we show, analytically and numerically, that the collective stall force of N filaments is greater than N times the stall force of a single filament. Employing an exactly solvable toy model, we analytically prove the above result for N=2. We, further, numerically show the existence of this collective phenomenon, for N>=2, in realistic models (with random and sequential hydrolysis) that simulate actin and microtubule bundle growth. We make quantitative predictions for the excess forces, and argue that this collective effect is related to the non-equilibrium nature of chemical switching.Comment: New J. Phys., 201

    Giant number fluctuations in microbial ecologies

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    Statistical fluctuations in population sizes of microbes may be quite large depending on the nature of their underlying stochastic dynamics. For example, the variance of the population size of a microbe undergoing a pure birth process with unlimited resources is proportional to the square of its mean. We refer to such large fluctuations, with the variance growing as square of the mean, as Giant Number Fluctuations (GNF). Luria and Delbruck showed that spontaneous mutation processes in microbial populations exhibit GNF. We explore whether GNF can arise in other microbial ecologies. We study certain simple ecological models evolving via stochastic processes: (i) bi-directional mutation, (ii) lysis-lysogeny of bacteria by bacteriophage, and (iii) horizontal gene transfer (HGT). For the case of bi-directional mutation process, we show analytically exactly that the GNF relationship holds at large times. For the ecological model of bacteria undergoing lysis or lysogeny under viral infection, we show that if the viral population can be experimentally manipulated to stay quasi-stationary, the process of lysogeny maps essentially to one-way mutation process and hence the GNF property of the lysogens follows. Finally, we show that even the process of HGT may map to the mutation process at large times, and thereby exhibits GNF.Comment: 18 pages, 5 figure

    Randall-Sundrum with Kalb-Ramond field: return of the hierarchy problem?

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    We show that when the antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond field is included in the Randall-Sundrum scenario, although the hierarchy problem can be solved, it requires an extreme fine tuning of the Kalb-Ramond field (about 1 part in 106210^{62}). We interpret this as the return of the problem in disguise. Further, we show that the Kalb-Ramond field induces a small negative cosmological constant on the visible brane.Comment: 8 pages, latex, 4 figures. Contributed talk at `Recent Developments in Gravity' (NEB XII), Nafplion, Greece, 29 June 200