58 research outputs found

    Cash Use in Australia: New Survey Evidence

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    The Reserve Bank has completed its second study of consumers' use of payment instruments. The study indicates that cash remains the most common form of payment by consumers. It is used extensively in situations where average payment values are low and where quick transaction times are preferred. Nonetheless, cash use as a share of total payments has declined, falling as a share of both the number and value of payments. Two important factors contributing to this decline are the substitution of cards for cash use, particularly for low-value payments, and the increasing adoption of online payments.withdrawals; payments; payments survey; transaction diary; payments use study; payments system; contactless payments; online payments

    The ATM Reforms - New Evidence from Survey and Market Data

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    Following the introduction of direct charging in March 2009, ATM pricing has become more transparent and flexible. Cardholders continue to respond to the clearer price signals by changing their cash withdrawal behaviour to avoid paying direct charges, and newly available data indicate that behaviour varies across age groups and geographic locations. For the small proportion of transactions that do incur a direct charge, flexibility in ATM pricing has led to a distinct pattern in these charges across different types of ATM locations. Variations in business models between ATM owners mean that most consumers have access to a large number of ATMs on which they pay no direct charge, while it remains possible for ATMs to be profitably deployed in high-cost or low-volume locations.ATMs; ATM reforms; ATM fees; foreign fees; foreign ATMs; direct charging; ATM surcharging; interchange fees; ATM Access Regime; ATM Deployment; payments reform; consumer use study; payment patterns; consumer behaviour

    Inventories and the Business Cycle

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    This paper examines the relationship between the inventory cycle and the business cycle. It uses both macro-economic data and data from surveys of individual firms’ actual and expected inventory accumulation. It is argued that over the past decade and a half, the amplitude of the inventory cycle has been reduced. This reduction in amplitude reflects the decline in the stocks to sales ratio and the decline in the relative importance of unintended inventory investment. In part, these changes have been made possible by the application of increasingly sophisticated inventory management techniques. The paper also argues that the behaviour of inventories is consistent with demand shocks being a principal source of business cycle fluctuations. This is in contrast to a number of recent papers that have argued that shocks to the cost of production are the driving force of the inventory and output cycles. We find that demand factors dominate cost factors in explaining both expected and unexpected changes in inventory investment.

    What next for Universal Design for Learning? A systematic literature review of technology in UDL implementations at second level

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    In the last two decades, there has been a global movement towards pedagogies that create more inclusive school environments in order to meet the needs of diverse learners. One such approach is Universal Design for Learning (UDL), which foregrounds the design of flexible and accessible learning experiences for all, regardless of learner characteristics. Technology is a key enabler in this. To date, much of the research on UDL has focused on its impact in higher education, with less evidence available on the use of UDL within second-level education. This systematic literature review of n = 15 empirical studies selected from a wide-ranging search that returned an initial result of n = 1253 explores how the affordances of digital technology have been harnessed for UDL enactment at second level. The findings show that, to date, empirical research at second level has focused mostly on the easy wins within the UDL principle of Representation, where educators offer choice about how learners access content. However, there is a clear gap in UDL research on the use of technologies to support the Engagement and Action & Expression principles of UDL, supporting student self-regulation and self-assessment, and on technology-mediated communication and collaboration. The paper highlights the potential for future cross-pollination of research in educational technology with UDL. Practitioner Notes What is already known about this topic Universal Design for Learning has been extensively researched in higher education and special education contexts but much less so at K-12, in particular at second level. Technology offers many affordances that can provide choice and variation in the learning process, which can be harnessed in a UDL approach. The transformative potential of technology in educational contexts was not fully realised pre-COVID. The COVID pandemic saw an acceleration in technology adoption for learning, but it remains to be seen whether technology is being deployed to complement or transform existing practices. What this paper adds This paper clearly identifies which affordances of technology are commonly deployed in UDL implementations, particularly noting the provision of choice through multi-media options for Representation and expression. There is a clear gap in UDL research on the use of technologies to support self-regulation and self-assessment, (eg, peer, teacher and automated feedback tools) and on technology-mediated communication and collaboration. The UDL literature does not address the potential negative impacts of technology within the learning context or the short-lived nature of positive impacts (novelty effect). Implications for practice and/or policy While technology affords great opportunities for choice and Engagement, the design of the learning experience must take priority, availing of technology as needed. There are great opportunities for cross-pollination of research at the forefront of educational technology and universal design to address any gaps in technology use in UDL implementations

    Large expert-curated database for benchmarking document similarity detection in biomedical literature search

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    Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translated into practice. To overcome this bottleneck, we have established the RElevant LIterature SearcH consortium consisting of more than 1500 scientists from 84 countries, who have collectively annotated the relevance of over 180 000 PubMed-listed articles with regard to their respective seed (input) article/s. The majority of annotations were contributed by highly experienced, original authors of the seed articles. The collected data cover 76% of all unique PubMed Medical Subject Headings descriptors. No systematic biases were observed across different experience levels, research fields or time spent on annotations. More importantly, annotations of the same document pairs contributed by different scientists were highly concordant. We further show that the three representative baseline methods used to generate recommended articles for evaluation (Okapi Best Matching 25, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency and PubMed Related Articles) had similar overall performances. Additionally, we found that these methods each tend to produce distinct collections of recommended articles, suggesting that a hybrid method may be required to completely capture all relevant articles. The established database server located at https://relishdb.ict.griffith.edu.au is freely available for the downloading of annotation data and the blind testing of new methods. We expect that this benchmark will be useful for stimulating the development of new powerful techniques for title and title/abstract-based search engines for relevant articles in biomedical research.Peer reviewe

    Discutindo a educação ambiental no cotidiano escolar: desenvolvimento de projetos na escola formação inicial e continuada de professores

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    A presente pesquisa buscou discutir como a Educa√ß√£o Ambiental (EA) vem sendo trabalhada, no Ensino Fundamental e como os docentes desta escola compreendem e vem inserindo a EA no cotidiano escolar., em uma escola estadual do munic√≠pio de Tangar√° da Serra/MT, Brasil. Para tanto, realizou-se entrevistas com os professores que fazem parte de um projeto interdisciplinar de EA na escola pesquisada. Verificou-se que o projeto da escola n√£o vem conseguindo alcan√ßar os objetivos propostos por: desconhecimento do mesmo, pelos professores; forma√ß√£o deficiente dos professores, n√£o entendimento da EA como processo de ensino-aprendizagem, falta de recursos did√°ticos, planejamento inadequado das atividades. A partir dessa constata√ß√£o, procurou-se debater a impossibilidade de tratar do tema fora do trabalho interdisciplinar, bem como, e principalmente, a import√Ęncia de um estudo mais aprofundado de EA, vinculando teoria e pr√°tica, tanto na forma√ß√£o docente, como em projetos escolares, a fim de fugir do tradicional v√≠nculo ‚ÄúEA e ecologia, lixo e horta‚ÄĚ.Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educaci√≥