82 research outputs found

    Subsidiary Entrepreneurial Alertness: Antecedents and Outcomes

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    This thesis brings together concepts from both international business and entrepreneurship to develop a framework of the facilitators of subsidiary innovation and performance. This study proposes that Subsidiary Entrepreneurial Alertness (SEA) facilitates the recognition of opportunities (the origin of subsidiary initiatives). First introduced by Kirzner (1979) in the context of the individual, entrepreneurial alertness (EA) is the ability to notice an opportunity without actively searching. Similarly, to entrepreneurial alertness at the individual level, this study argues that SEA enables the subsidiary to best select opportunities based on resources available. The research further develops our conceptualisation of SEA by drawing on work by Tang et al. (2012) identifying three distinct activities of EA: scanning and search (identifying opportunities unseen by others due to their awareness gaps), association and connection of information, and evaluation and judgement to interpret or anticipate future viability of opportunities. This study then hypothesises that SEA leads to opportunity recognition at the subsidiary level and further hypothesises innovation and performance as outcomes of opportunity recognition. This research brings these arguments together to develop and test a comprehensive theoretical model. The theoretical model is tested through a mail survey of the CEOs/MDs of foreign subsidiaries within the Republic of Ireland (an innovative hub for foreign subsidiaries). This method was selected as the best method to reach the targeted respondent, and due to the depth of knowledge the target respondent holds, the survey can answer the desired question more substantially. The results were examined using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The study鈥檚 findings confirm two critical aspects of subsidiary context, subsidiary brokerage and subsidiary credibility are positively related to SEA. The study establishes a positive link between SEA and both the generation of innovation and the subsidiary鈥檚 performance. This thesis makes three significant contributions to the subsidiary literature as it 1) introduces and develops the concept of SEA, 2) identifies the antecedents of SEA, and 3) demonstrates the impact of SEA on subsidiary opportunity recognition. Implications for subsidiaries, headquarters and policy makers are discussed along with the limitations of the study

    The impact of climate change on electricity demand in the city of Huancayo

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    This paper analyses how climate change affects electricity demand in the city of Huancayo, Peru, in order to find the relationship between electricity demand and temperature in degree Celsius in the last 20 years, using Spearman correlation, based on heating degree days (HDD), cooling degree days (CDD) and electricity demand data in Mw, the conversion of average temperatures to degree days showed that only heating degree days (HDD) were found, our statistical results show that there is a moderate inverse relationship, which means that in the last 20 years the increase in electricity demand was partially due to lower temperatures, since these cause higher heating needs and thus increased electricity demand. It is suggested that the research can be carried out in different parts of Peru, since the results may vary due to the diversity of climates and it is also of utmost importance to work carefully with the temperature data, to have accurate results. This gives us a notion that energy reserves should be prepared, and the use of renewable energies must be implemented with greater emphasis

    Next-Generation Probiotics Targeting \u3ci\u3eClostridium difficile\u3c/i\u3e through Precursor- Directed Antimicrobial Biosynthesis

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    Integration of antibiotic and probiotic therapy has the potential to lessen the public health burden of antimicrobial-associated diseases. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents an important example where the rational design of next-generation probiotics is being actively pursued to prevent disease recurrence. Because intrinsic resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics used to treat CDI (vancomycin, metronidazole, and fidaxomicin) is a desired trait in such probiotic species, we screened several bacteria and identified Lactobacillus reuteri to be a promising candidate for adjunct therapy. Human-derived L. reuteri bacteria convert glycerol to the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound reuterin. When supplemented with glycerol, strains carrying the pocR gene locus were potent reuterin producers, with L. reuteri 17938 inhibiting C. difficile growth at a level on par with the level of growth inhibition by vancomycin. Targeted pocR mutations and complementation studies identified reuterin to be the precursor-induced antimicrobial agent. Pathophysiological relevance was demonstrated when the codelivery of L. reuteri with glycerol was effective against C. difficile colonization in complex human fecal microbial communities, whereas treatment with either glycerol or L. reuteri alone was ineffective. A global unbiased microbiome and metabolomics analysis independently confirmed that glycerol precursor delivery with L. reuteri elicited changes in the composition and function of the human microbial community that preferentially targets C. difficile outgrowth and toxicity, a finding consistent with glycerol fermentation and reuterin production. Antimicrobial resistance has thus been successfully exploited in the natural design of human microbiome evasion of C. difficile, and this method may provide a prototypic precursor-directed probiotic approach. Antibiotic resistance and substrate bioavailability may therefore represent critical new determinants of probiotic efficacy in clinical trials

    Mortalidad de aves marinas producida por luces artificiales terrestres

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    Artificial lights at night cause high mortality of seabirds, one of the most endangered groups of birds globally. Fledglings of burrow-nesting seabirds, and to a lesser extent adults, are attracted to and then grounded (i.e., forced to land) by lights when they fly at night. We reviewed the current state of knowledge of seabird attraction to light to identify information gaps and propose measures to address the problem. Although species in families such as Alcidae and Anatidae can be grounded by artificial light, the most affected seabirds are petrels and shearwaters (Procellariiformes). At least 56 species of Procellariiformes, more than one-third of them (24) threatened, are subject to grounding by lights. Seabirds grounded by lights have been found worldwide, mainly on oceanic islands but also at some continental locations. Petrel breeding grounds confined to formerly uninhabited islands are particularly at risk from light pollution due to tourism and urban sprawl. Where it is impractical to ban external lights, rescue programs of grounded birds offer the most immediate and employed mitigation to reduce the rate of light-induced mortality and save thousands of birds every year. These programs also provide useful information for seabird management. However, these data are typically fragmentary, biased, and uncertain and can lead to inaccurate impact estimates and poor understanding of the phenomenon of seabird attraction to lights. We believe the most urgently needed actions to mitigate and understand light-induced mortality of seabirds are estimation of mortality and effects on populations; determination of threshold light levels and safe distances from light sources; documentation of the fate of rescued birds; improvement of rescue campaigns, particularly in terms of increasing recovery rates and level of care; and research on seabird-friendly lights to reduce attraction.RESUMEN: Las luces artificiales nocturnas causan una mortalidad alta de aves marinas, uno de los grupos de aves en mayor peligro de extinci贸n a nivel mundial. Los polluelos de aves marinas que anidan en madrigueras, y en menor medida los adultos, son atra铆dos y forzados a aterrizar por las luces cuando vuelan de noche. Revisamos el estado actual del conocimiento sobre la atracci贸n de las aves marinas por la luz para identificar vac铆os de informaci贸n y proponer medidas para resolver el problema. Aunque las especies de familias como Alcidae y Anatidae pueden ser forzadas a aterrizar por la luz artificial, las aves marinas m谩s afectadas son los petreles y las pardelas (Procellariiformes). Por lo menos 56 especies de Procellariiformes, m谩s de un tercio (24) de ellas amenazadas, son propensas al aterrizaje atra铆das por las luces. Las aves marinas forzadas a aterrizar han sido halladas en todo el mundo, principalmente en islas oce谩nicas, pero tambi茅n en algunas localidades continentales. Los sitios de anidaci贸n de los petreles confinados anteriormente a islas deshabitadas est谩n particularmente en riesgo de sufrir contaminaci贸n lum铆nica debido al turismo y al crecimiento urbano. En donde no es pr谩ctico prohibir las luces externas, los programas de rescate de las aves accidentadas ofrecen la mitigaci贸n m谩s inmediata y empleada para reducir la tasa de mortalidad inducida por la luz y salvar a miles de aves cada a帽o. Estos programas tambi茅n proporcionan informaci贸n 煤til para el manejo de aves marinas. Sin embargo, estos datos est谩n t铆picamente fragmentados, sesgados y son inciertos, y pueden llevar a estimaciones inexactas del impacto y a un entendimiento pobre del fen贸meno de la atracci贸n de las aves marinas por la luz. Creemos que las acciones necesarias de mayor urgencia para mitigar y entender la mortalidad de aves marinas producida por la luz son: la estimaci贸n de la mortalidad y los efectos sobre la poblaci贸n; la determinaci贸n de umbrales de niveles de luz y de distancias seguras a las fuentes de luz; el estudio del destino de las aves rescatadas; la mejora de las campa帽as de rescate, particularmente en t茅rminos de incrementar las tasas de recogida y el nivel de cuidado; y la investigaci贸n sobre las caracter铆sticas de la luz para reducir la atracci贸n de las aves marinas.This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (Project ID: 330655 FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IOF)info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    A global threats overview for Numeniini populations: synthesising expert knowledge for a group of declining migratory birds

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    The Numeniini is a tribe of thirteen wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are near-threatened or globally threatened, including two critically endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian - Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species鈥 recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species

    A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation around six candidate loci for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

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    OBJECTIVES: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) has a complex etiology with a significant genetic component. Heterozygous mutations of canalicular transporters occur in a subset of ICP cases and a population susceptibility allele (p.444A) has been identified in ABCB11. We sought to expand our knowledge of the detailed genetic contribution to ICP by investigation of common variation around candidate loci with biological plausibility for a role in ICP (ABCB4, ABCB11, ABCC2, ATP8B1, NR1H4, and FGF19). METHODS: ICP patients (n=563) of white western European origin and controls (n=642) were analyzed in a case-control design. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers (n=83) were selected from the HapMap data set (Tagger, Haploview 4.1 (build 22)). Genotyping was performed by allelic discrimination assay on a robotic platform. Following quality control, SNP data were analyzed by Armitage's trend test. RESULTS: Cochran-Armitage trend testing identified six SNPs in ABCB11 together with six SNPs in ABCB4 that showed significant evidence of association. The minimum Bonferroni corrected P value for trend testing ABCB11 was 5.81脳10(-4) (rs3815676) and for ABCB4 it was 4.6脳10(-7)(rs2109505). Conditional analysis of the two clusters of association signals suggested a single signal in ABCB4 but evidence for two independent signals in ABCB11. To confirm these findings, a second study was performed in a further 227 cases, which confirmed and strengthened the original findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis of a large cohort of ICP cases has identified a key role for common variation around the ABCB4 and ABCB11 loci, identified the core associations, and expanded our knowledge of ICP susceptibility

    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in 鈭歴 = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and miss- ing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb鈭1 of proton鈥損roton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at 鈭歴 = 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are in- terpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour- neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross- section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour- charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements

    Measurements of top-quark pair differential cross-sections in the ee\mu channel in pppp collisions at s=13\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV using the ATLAS detector