35 research outputs found

    Path-integral over non-linearly realized groups and Hierarchy solutions

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    The technical problem of deriving the full Green functions of the elementary pion fields of the nonlinear sigma model in terms of ancestor amplitudes involving only the flat connection and the nonlinear sigma model constraint is a very complex task. In this paper we solve this problem by integrating, order by order in the perturbative loop expansion, the local functional equation derived from the invariance of the SU(2) Haar measure under local left multiplication. This yields the perturbative definition of the path-integral over the non-linearly realized SU(2) group.Comment: 26 page

    Morphology and luminescence of nanocrystalline Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> doped with Eu<sup>3+</sup>

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    The synthesis of nanocrystalline Nb2O5:Eu3+ has been achieved by using a Pechini procedure. The obtained materials are single-phase niobia with the orthorhombic structure, average crystallite size around 25nm and average lattice strain of about 0.002. TEM images show that the particles are rectangular and reasonably isolated. The luminescence of the Eu3+ ions in the niobia lattice is efficient and affected by a strong inhomogeneous broadening, due to an important disorder around the lanthanide ions

    Lighthouse: A spacebased mission concept for the surveillance of geosynchronous space debris from low earth orbit

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    In this paper, a new mission is proposed for space debris surveillance in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The mission "Lighthouse", here proposed as a concept study, describes the use of a small satellite in a low polar orbit, equipped with a Schmidt telescope, constantly observing a belt across the geostationary orbit. In this way, a single instrument can sweep the whole orbit everyday regardless the light and weather conditions. Most of observations are nowadays performed by ground telescopes, which are affected by weather conditions and night time duration. Moreover, a single telescope can observe only a portion of the geostationary orbit. The mission concept arose as space application of an ESA ITI (Innovation Triangle Initiative) project designing a Schmidt telescope purposely conceived for the monitoring of NEO (Near Earth Objects) and space debris. A compact version of the telescope (50 cm diameter and 1.61 m length), particularly suitable for space applications, has been designed too. The size and the mass of the telescope enable the use of a small satellite platform, with the related advantages in term of costs and performance. Lighthouse is proposed as a new asset for Space Surveillance and Tracking sensors, complementary to the ground telescopes network

    Emergent Ascomycetes in viticulture: an interdisciplinary overview

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    The reduction of pesticide usage is a current imperative and the implementation of sustainable viticulture is an urgent necessity. A potential solution, which is being increasingly adopted, is offered by the use of grapevine cultivars resistant to its main pathogenic threats. This, however, has contributed to changes in defense strategies resulting in the occurrence of secondary diseases, which were previously controlled. Concomitantly, the ongoing climate crisis is contributing to destabilizing the increasingly dynamic viticultural context. In this review, we explore the available knowledge on three Ascomycetes which are considered emergent and causal agents of powdery mildew, black rot and anthracnose. We also aim to provide a survey on methods for phenotyping disease symptoms in fields, greenhouse and lab conditions, and for disease control underlying the insurgence of pathogen resistance to fungicide. Thus, we discuss fungal genetic variability, highlighting the usage and development of molecular markers and barcoding, coupled with genome sequencing. Moreover, we extensively report on the current knowledge available on grapevine-ascomycete interactions, as well as the mechanisms developed by the host to counteract the attack. Indeed, to better understand these resistance mechanisms, it is relevant to identify pathogen effectors which are involved in the infection process and how grapevine resistance genes function and impact the downstream cascade. Dealing with such a wealth of information on both pathogens and the host, the horizon is now represented by multidisciplinary approaches, combining traditional and innovative methods of cultivation. This will support the translation from theory to practice, in an attempt to understand biology very deeply and manage the spread of these Ascomycetes

    Anisotropic Proton and Oxygen Ion Conductivity in Epitaxial Ba<sub>2</sub>In<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> Thin Films

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    Solid oxide oxygen ion and proton conductors are a highly important class of materials for renewable energy conversion devices like solid oxide fuel cells. Ba<sub>2</sub>In<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> (BIO) exhibits both oxygen ion and proton conduction, in a dry and humid environment, respectively. In a dry environment, the brownmillerite crystal structure of BIO exhibits an ordered oxygen ion sublattice, which has been speculated to result in anisotropic oxygen ion conduction. The hydrated structure of BIO, however, resembles a perovskite and the protons in it were predicted to be ordered in layers. To complement the significant theoretical and experimental efforts recently reported on the potentially anisotropic conductive properties in BIO, we measure here both the proton and oxygen ion conductivity along different crystallographic directions. Using epitaxial thin films with different crystallographic orientations, the charge transport for both charge carriers is shown to be anisotropic. The anisotropy of the oxygen ion conduction can indeed be explained by the layered structure of the oxygen sublattice of BIO. The anisotropic proton conduction, however, further supports the suggested ordering of the protonic defects in the material. The differences in proton conduction along different crystallographic directions attributed to proton ordering in BIO are of a similar extent as those observed along different crystallographic directions in materials where proton ordering is not present but where protons find preferential conduction pathways through chainlike or layered structures

    Marker-assisted breeding for Downy mildew, Powderey mildew and Phylloxera resistance at FEM

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    Il programma di miglioramento genetico per le resistenze a stress biotici ha avuto inizio presso la Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM) nel 2010. Inizialmente è stata condotta una caratterizzazione sia genotipica che fenotipica di materiali acquisiti da altri programmi di breeding e di materiale selvatico raccolto in New Jersey. Sia i genotipi conosciuti nei database internazionali che i genotipi sconosciuti, imparentati e non, sono stati impiegati come linee parentali nel processo di introgressione e di piramidazione di loci di interesse. Una volta pianificati e ottenuti gli incroci, la valutazione delle progenie è avvenuta seguendo un processo di Marker-Assisted Selection: dapprima è avvenuta la selezione fenotipica in serra in base al tipo di malattia e al numero di loci attesi per la medesima malattia; successivamente si è proceduto con lo screening molecolare in base ai loci specifici attesi nei parentali. Cinque sono i loci Run/Ren associati alla resistenza all'oidio presenti nel programma FEM; riguardo ai loci associati alla resistenza alla peronospora, quattro Rpv sono ben rappresentati nel piano di incroci. Ad oggi il 26% delle F1 è piramidizzato per quattro loci di resistenza