117 research outputs found

    PB.23: Effect of detector type on cancer detection in digital mammography

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    This work measured the effect that image quality associated with different detectors has on cancer detection in mammography using a novel method for changing the appearance of images.\ud \ud A set of 270 mammography cases (one view, both breasts) was acquired using five Hologic Selenias and two Hologic Dimensions X-ray units: 80 normal, 80 with simulated inserted subtle calcification clusters, 80 with subtle real noncalcification malignant lesions and 30 with benign lesions (biopsy proven). These 270 cases (Arm 1) were converted to appear as if they had been acquired on two other imaging systems: needle image plate computed radiography (CR) (Arm 2) and powder phosphor CR (Arm 3). Three experienced mammography readers marked the location of suspected cancers in the images and classified whether each lesion would require further investigation and the confidence in that decision. Performance was calculated as the area under curve (AUC) of the alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic curv

    Detailed Analysis of Scatter Contribution from Different Simulated Geometries of X-ray Detectors.

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    Scattering is one of the main issues left in planar mammography examinations, as it degrades the quality of the image and complicates the diagnostic process. Although widely used, anti-scatter grids have been found to be inefficient, increasing the dose delivered, the equipment price and not eliminating all the scattered radiation. Alternative scattering reduction methods, based on postprocessing algorithms using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, are being developed to substitute anti-scatter grids. Idealized detectors are commonly used in the simulations for the purpose of simplification. In this study, the scatter distribution of three detector geometries is analyzed and compared: Case 1 makes use of idealized detector geometry, Case 2 uses a scintillator plate and Case 3 uses a more realistic detector simulation, based on the structure of an indirect mammography X-ray detector. This paper demonstrates that common configuration simplifications may introduce up to 14% of underestimation of the scatter in simulation results

    Mammographic screening before age 50 years in the UK: comparison of the radiation risks with the mortality benefits

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    Mammographic screening before age 50 years is less effective than at older ages and the associated radiation risks are higher. We estimated how many breast cancer deaths could be caused and how many could be prevented by a decade of annual two-view mammographic screening starting at ages 20, 30 and 40 years, respectively, in the UK; for all women, and for women with first-degree relatives affected with breast cancer. We extrapolated from a radiation risk model to estimate the number of radiation-induced breast cancer deaths, and used results from randomised trials, which suggest a reduction in breast cancer mortality of 10–20% in women invited to screening before age 50 years, to estimate the number of deaths that could be prevented. The net change in breast cancer deaths was defined as the number of radiation-induced deaths minus the number of prevented deaths. For all women, assuming a reduction in mortality from screening of 20%, a decade of annual screening was estimated to induce more deaths than it prevents if started at age 20 years and at age 30 years (net increase=0.86 and 0.37 breast cancer deaths, respectively, per 1000 women screened). The corresponding estimate for screening starting at age 40 years was a net decrease of 0.46 deaths/1000 women screened and a zero net change assuming a 10% mortality reduction. Results for women with first-degree relatives with breast cancer were generally in the same direction but, because their background incidence rates are higher, the net increases or decreases were greater. In conclusion, our estimates suggest that a decade of annual two-view mammographic screening before age 40 years would result in a net increase in breast cancer deaths, and that starting at age 40 years could result in a material net decrease only if breast cancer mortality is reduced by about 20% or more in women screened. Although these calculations were based on a number of uncertain parameters, in general, the conclusions were not altered when these parameters were varied within a feasible range

    A Simple Scoring System to Differentiate between Relapse and Re-Infection in Patients with Recurrent Melioidosis

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    Melioidosis is a serious infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. This organism is present in the environment in areas where melioidosis is endemic (most notably East Asia and Northern Australia), and infection is acquired following bacterial inoculation or inhalation. Despite prolonged oral eradicative treatment, recurrent melioidosis occurs in approximately 10% of survivors of acute melioidosis. Recurrent melioidosis can be caused by relapse (failure of initial eradicative treatment) or re-infection with a new infection. The aim of this study was to develop a simple scoring system to distinguish between re-infection and relapse, since this has implications for antimicrobial treatment of the recurrent episode, but telling the two apart normally requires bacterial genotyping. A prospective study of melioidosis patients in NE Thailand conducted between 1986 and 2005 identified 141 patients with recurrent melioidosis. Of these, 92 patients had relapse and 49 patients had re-infection as confirmed by genotyping techniques. We found that relapse was associated with previous inadequate treatment and shorter time to clinical features of recurrence, while re-infection was associated with renal insufficiency and presentation during the rainy season. A simple scoring index to help distinguish between relapse and re-infection was developed to provide important bedside information where rapid bacterial genotyping is unavailable. Guidelines are provided on how this scoring system could be implemented

    Phylogeographical analysis of the dominant multidrug-resistant H58 clade of Salmonella Typhi identifies inter- and intracontinental transmission events.

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    The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) typhoid is a major global health threat affecting many countries where the disease is endemic. Here whole-genome sequence analysis of 1,832 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) identifies a single dominant MDR lineage, H58, that has emerged and spread throughout Asia and Africa over the last 30 years. Our analysis identifies numerous transmissions of H58, including multiple transfers from Asia to Africa and an ongoing, unrecognized MDR epidemic within Africa itself. Notably, our analysis indicates that H58 lineages are displacing antibiotic-sensitive isolates, transforming the global population structure of this pathogen. H58 isolates can harbor a complex MDR element residing either on transmissible IncHI1 plasmids or within multiple chromosomal integration sites. We also identify new mutations that define the H58 lineage. This phylogeographical analysis provides a framework to facilitate global management of MDR typhoid and is applicable to similar MDR lineages emerging in other bacterial species