18 research outputs found

    IL-9 Induces VEGF Secretion from Human Mast Cells and IL-9/IL-9 Receptor Genes Are Overexpressed in Atopic Dermatitis

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    Interleukin 9 (IL-9) has been implicated in mast cell-related inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, where vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved. Here we report that IL-9 (10–20 ng/ml) induces gene expression and secretion of VEGF from human LAD2. IL-9 does not induce mast cell degranulation or the release of other mediators (IL-1, IL-8, or TNF). VEGF production in response to IL-9 involves STAT-3 activation. The effect is inhibited (about 80%) by the STAT-3 inhibitor, Stattic. Gene-expression of IL-9 and IL-9 receptor is significantly increased in lesional skin areas of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients as compared to normal control skin, while serum IL-9 is not different from controls. These results imply that functional interactions between IL-9 and mast cells leading to VEGF release contribute to the initiation/propagation of the pathogenesis of AD, a skin inflammatory disease

    (A) IL-9 induces STAT3 phosphorylation in LAD2 cells.

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    <p>Cells were stimulated with IL-9 for up to 20 min. Phospho-STAT3 levels in the cell lysates were determined by ELISA. (B) STAT3 inhibitor Stattic inhibits IL-9-induced VEGF release from LAD2 cells. LAD2 cells were pre-incubated for 30 min with the indicated concentrations of Stattic. Cells were stimulated with IL-9 (10–20 ng/ml) for 24 h and supernatant VEGF was measured by ELISA. Data are representative of similar experiments.</p

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in affected skin and increased mitochondrial DNA in serum from patients with psoriasis

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    Psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte proliferation and chronic inflammation, but the pathogenesis is still unclear. Dysregulated mitochondria (mt) could lead to reduced apoptosis and extracellular secretion of mtDNA, acting as “innate pathogen” triggering inflammation. Serum was obtained from healthy volunteers and psoriatic patients. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from the serum and amplified with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Punch biopsies were obtained from lesional and non-lesional psoriatic skin (10 cm apart) and from healthy volunteers, were placed in RNA later and were stored at -80 degrees C until RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized; gene expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and calcineurin, involved in the regulation of mitochondria function, was detected with qPCR. Mitochondrial DNA was significantly increased (7s, P = 0.0496 and Cytochrome B, CytB, P = 0.0403) in the serum of psoriatic patients (n = 63) as compared to controls (n = 27). Gene expression was significantly reduced for UCP2 (P = 0.0218), Drp1 (P = 0.0001) and calcineurin (P = 0.0001) in lesional psoriatic skin, as compared to non-lesional or control skin. Increased serum extracellular mtDNA in psoriatic patients and decreased expression of mitochondrial regulatory proteins in psoriatic skin suggest increased inflammation and reduced keratinocyte apoptosis, respectively. Inhibitors of mtDNA secretion and/or UCP2 stimulants may be potential treatment options

    Human mast cell degranulation and preformed TNF secretion require mitochondrial translocation to exocytosis sites: Relevance to atopic dermatitis

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    Background: Mast cells derive from hematopoietic cell precursors and participate in tissue allergic, immune, and inflammatory processes. They secrete many mediators, including preformed TNF, in response to allergic, neuropeptide, and environmental triggers. However, regulation of mast cell degranulation is not well understood. Objective: We investigated the role of mitochondrial dynamics in degranulation of human cultured mast cells. Methods: Human umbilical cord blood-derived mast cells (hCBMCs) and Laboratory of Allergic Diseases 2 (LAD2) mast cells were examined by confocal and differential interference contrast microscopy during activation by IgE/antigen and substance P (SP). Mast cells in control and atopic dermatitis (AD) skin were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. LAD2 cells were pretreated with mitochondrial division inhibitor, a dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) inhibitor, and small interfering RNA for Drp1, which is necessary for mitochondrial fission and translocation. Calcineurin and Drp1 gene expression was analyzed in stimulated LAD2 cells and AD skin biopsies. Results: Stimulation of hCBMCs with IgE/antigen or LAD2 cells with SP leads to rapid (30 minutes) secretion of preformed TNF. Degranulation is accompanied by mitochondrial translocation from a perinuclear location to exocytosis sites. Extracellular calcium depletion prevents these effects, indicating calcium requirement. The calcium-dependent calcineurin and Drp1 are activated 30 minutes after SP stimulation. Reduction of Drp1 activity by mitochondrial division inhibitor and decrease of Drp1 expression using small interfering RNA inhibit mitochondrial translocation, degranulation, and TNF secretion. Mitochondrial translocation is also evident by transmission electron microscopy in skin mast cells from AD biopsies, in which gene expression of calcineurin, Drp1, and SP is higher than in normal skin. Conclusion: Human mast cell degranulation requires mitochondrial dynamics, also implicated in AD. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;127:1522-31.