42 research outputs found

    Analysis of the impact of technologies and methods of hologram transmission on the parameters and effects of transmission

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    The aim of the article is to compare and analyze the impact of technologies and data transfer techniques in term of displaying the image using a holographic pyramid. When assessing the usability of the solution, the following parameters will be taken into account: time of image transfer, use of physical parameters of the machine and parameters of the Java Virtual Machine

    The quality of data and the accuracy of energy generation forecast by artificial neural networks

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    The paper presents the issues related to predicting the amount of energy generation, in a particular wind power plant comprising five generators located in south-eastern Poland. The location of wind power plant, the distribution and type of applied generators, and topographical conditions were given and the correlation between selected weather parameters and the volume of energy generation was discussed. The primary objective of the paper was to select learning data and perform forecasts using artificial neural networks. For comparison, conservative forecasts were also presented. Forecasts results obtained shaw that Artificial Neural Networks are more universal than conservative method. However their forecast accuracy of forecasts strongly depends on the selection of explanatory dat

    Społeczeństwo rynkowe: jak logika rynku ekonomicznego wpływa na nasze życie

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    The market society: how the logic of the market affects our live

    Dynamics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with various polymeric coatings

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    In this article, the results of a study of the magnetic dynamics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with chitosan and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings are reported. The materials were prepared by the co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering and scanning transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the cores contain maghemite, and their hydrodynamic diameters vary from 49 nm for PEG-coated to 200 nm for chitosan-coated particles. The magnetic dynamics of the nanoparticles in terms of the function of temperature was studied with magnetic susceptometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Their superparamagnetic fluctuations frequencies, determined from the fits of Mössbauer spectra, range from tens to hundreds of megahertz at room temperature and mostly decrease in the applied magnetic field. For water suspensions of nanoparticles, maxima are observed in the absorption part of magnetic susceptibility and they shift to higher temperatures with increasing excitation frequency. A step-like decrease of the susceptibility occurs at freezing, and from that, the Brown’s and Néel’s contributions are extracted and compared for nanoparticles differing in core sizes and types of coating. The results are analyzed and discussed with respect to the tailoring of the dynamic properties of these nanoparticle materials for requirements related to the characteristic frequency ranges of MRI and electromagnetic field hyperthermia

    Comparison of the physicochemical properties of TiO2 thin films obtained by magnetron sputtering with continuous and pulsed gas flow

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    In this paper, a comparison of TiO2 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering with a continuous and pulsed gas flow was presented. Structural, surface, optical, and mechanical properties of deposited titanium dioxide coatings were analyzed with the use of a wide range of measurement techniques. It was found that thin films deposited with a gas impulse had a nanocrystalline rutile structure instead of fibrous-like anatase obtained with a continuous gas flow. TiO2 thin films deposited with both techniques were transparent in the visible wavelength range, however, a much higher refractive index and packing density were observed for coatings deposited by the pulsed gas technique. The application of a gas impulse improved the hardness and scratch resistance of the prepared TiO2 thin films

    Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins

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    Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins). Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a) and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin) due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale. Direct and indirect effects of temperature were the main drivers of the spatial distribution in the toxins produced by the cyanobacterial community, the toxin concentrations and toxin quota. Generalized linear models showed that a Toxin Diversity Index (TDI) increased with latitude, while it decreased with water stability. Increases in TDI were explained through a significant increase in toxin variants such as MC-YR, anatoxin and cylindrospermopsin, accompanied by a decreasing presence of MC-LR. While global warming continues, the direct and indirect effects of increased lake temperatures will drive changes in the distribution of cyanobacterial toxins in Europe, potentially promoting selection of a few highly toxic species or strains.Peer reviewe

    Height and body-mass index trajectories of school-aged children and adolescents from 1985 to 2019 in 200 countries and territories: a pooled analysis of 2181 population-based studies with 65 million participants

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    Summary Background Comparable global data on health and nutrition of school-aged children and adolescents are scarce. We aimed to estimate age trajectories and time trends in mean height and mean body-mass index (BMI), which measures weight gain beyond what is expected from height gain, for school-aged children and adolescents. Methods For this pooled analysis, we used a database of cardiometabolic risk factors collated by the Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Collaboration. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1985 to 2019 in mean height and mean BMI in 1-year age groups for ages 5–19 years. The model allowed for non-linear changes over time in mean height and mean BMI and for non-linear changes with age of children and adolescents, including periods of rapid growth during adolescence. Findings We pooled data from 2181 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in 65 million participants in 200 countries and territories. In 2019, we estimated a difference of 20 cm or higher in mean height of 19-year-old adolescents between countries with the tallest populations (the Netherlands, Montenegro, Estonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina for boys; and the Netherlands, Montenegro, Denmark, and Iceland for girls) and those with the shortest populations (Timor-Leste, Laos, Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea for boys; and Guatemala, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Timor-Leste for girls). In the same year, the difference between the highest mean BMI (in Pacific island countries, Kuwait, Bahrain, The Bahamas, Chile, the USA, and New Zealand for both boys and girls and in South Africa for girls) and lowest mean BMI (in India, Bangladesh, Timor-Leste, Ethiopia, and Chad for boys and girls; and in Japan and Romania for girls) was approximately 9–10 kg/m2. In some countries, children aged 5 years started with healthier height or BMI than the global median and, in some cases, as healthy as the best performing countries, but they became progressively less healthy compared with their comparators as they grew older by not growing as tall (eg, boys in Austria and Barbados, and girls in Belgium and Puerto Rico) or gaining too much weight for their height (eg, girls and boys in Kuwait, Bahrain, Fiji, Jamaica, and Mexico; and girls in South Africa and New Zealand). In other countries, growing children overtook the height of their comparators (eg, Latvia, Czech Republic, Morocco, and Iran) or curbed their weight gain (eg, Italy, France, and Croatia) in late childhood and adolescence. When changes in both height and BMI were considered, girls in South Korea, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and some central Asian countries (eg, Armenia and Azerbaijan), and boys in central and western Europe (eg, Portugal, Denmark, Poland, and Montenegro) had the healthiest changes in anthropometric status over the past 3·5 decades because, compared with children and adolescents in other countries, they had a much larger gain in height than they did in BMI. The unhealthiest changes—gaining too little height, too much weight for their height compared with children in other countries, or both—occurred in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, New Zealand, and the USA for boys and girls; in Malaysia and some Pacific island nations for boys; and in Mexico for girls. Interpretation The height and BMI trajectories over age and time of school-aged children and adolescents are highly variable across countries, which indicates heterogeneous nutritional quality and lifelong health advantages and risks

    Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults

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    Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.Peer reviewe

    A century of trends in adult human height

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    Szczęście w nabywaniu. „Samotrawiąca namiętność” społeczeństwa konsumentów

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