5,155 research outputs found

    Atrioventricular canal defect and genetic syndromes: the unifying role of sonic hedgehog

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    The atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD) is a congenital heart defect (CHD) frequently associated with extracardiac anomalies (75%). Previous observations from a personal series of patients with AVCD and "polydactyly syndromes" showed that the distinct morphology and combination of AVCD features in some of these syndromes is reminiscent of the cardiac phenotype found in heterotaxy, a malformation complex previously associated with functional cilia abnormalities and aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Hh signaling coordinates multiple aspects of left-right lateralization and cardiovascular growth. Being active at the venous pole the secondary heart field (SHF) is essential for normal development of dorsal mesenchymal protrusion and AVCD formation and septation. Experimental data show that perturbations of different components of the Hh pathway can lead to developmental errors presenting with partially overlapping manifestations and AVCD as a common denominator. We review the potential role of Hh signaling in the pathogenesis of AVCD in different genetic disorders. AVCD can be viewed as part of a "developmental field," according to the concept that malformations can be due to defects in signal transduction cascades or pathways, as morphogenetic units which may be altered by Mendelian mutations, aneuploidies, and environmental causes

    PINK1 homozygous W437X mutation in a patient with apparent dominant transmission of parkinsonism.

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    We analyzed the PINK1 gene in 58 patients with early-onset Parkinsonism and detected the homozygous mutation W437X in 1 patient. The clinical phenotype was characterized by early onset (22 years of age), good re- sponse to levodopa, early fluctuations and dyskinesias, and psychiatric symptoms. The mother, heterozygote for W437X mutation, was affected by Parkinson’s disease and 3 further relatives were reported affected, according to an autosomal dominant transmission

    Protein carbonyl group content in patients affected by familiar chronic nail candidiasis.

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    Familiar chronic nail candidiasis (FCNC) is a rare disorder characterized by early-onset infections caused by different species of Candida, restricted to the nail of the hands and feet, and associated with a low serum concentration of intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Host defense mechanisms against candidiasis require the cooperation of many immune cells through several candidacidal mechanisms, including oxygen-dependent killing mechanisms, mediated by a superoxide anion radical myeloperoxidase--H2O2--halide system, and reactive nitrogen intermediates. We analyzed protein carbonyl groups (considered a useful marker of oxidative stress) in the serum of patients belonging to a five-generation Italian family with an isolated form of FCNC. Serum protein carbonyl groups in FCNC patients were significantly lower than those measured in healthy donors. Also, if this hypothesis is merely speculative, we could suggest that the decreased circulating level of protein carbonyl groups in these patients is not a marker of a lower oxidative stress condition, but might be linked to a lower protease activity

    Evidence for a narrow dip structure at 1.9 GeV/c2^2 in 3ŌÄ+3ŌÄ‚ąí3\pi^+ 3\pi^- diffractive photoproduction

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    A narrow dip structure has been observed at 1.9 GeV/c2^2 in a study of diffractive photoproduction of the ¬†3ŌÄ+3ŌÄ‚ąí~3\pi^+3\pi^- final state performed by the Fermilab experiment E687.Comment: The data of Figure 6 can be obtained by downloading the raw data file e687_6pi.txt. v5 (2nov2018): added Fig. 7, the 6 pion energy distribution as requested by a reade

    Measurement of Branching Fractions and Rate Asymmetries in the Rare Decays B -> K(*) l+ l-

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    In a sample of 471 million BB events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e+e- collider we study the rare decays B -> K(*) l+ l-, where l+ l- is either e+e- or mu+mu-. We report results on partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries in seven bins of di-lepton mass-squared. We further present CP and lepton-flavor asymmetries for di-lepton masses below and above the J/psi resonance. We find no evidence for CP or lepton-flavor violation. The partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries are consistent with the Standard Model predictions and with results from other experiments.Comment: 16 pages, 14 figures, accepted by Phys. Rev.
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