24 research outputs found

    High resolution images of pictures shown in Fig 2A and 2B.

    No full text
    High resolution images of pictures shown in Fig 2A and 2B.</p

    High resolution images of pictures shown in Fig 4A.

    No full text
    High resolution images of pictures shown in Fig 4A.</p

    Oligo-CS effectively inhibits differentiation of RAW264 cells into osteoclasts.

    No full text
    (A) RAW264 cells were grown in differentiation medium for 5 days to differentiate into osteoclasts. The control cells were grown in differentiation medium without sRANKL. Then the cells were subjected to TRAP staining. (B) RAW264 cells were grown in differentiation medium with the indicated concentrations of CS or Oligo-CS for 5 days, and the cells were subjected to TRAP staining. (C) The TRAP positive mature multinuclear cells were counted under a microscope. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated from at least 19 frames of each group. Asterisks (*) shown in the graph indicate that the difference is statistically significant (p < 0.05) compared to the control.</p

    Marker gene mRNA expressions in C2C12 cells grown in adipocyte differentiation medium.

    No full text
    (A) C2C12 cells were grown in adipocyte differentiation medium for a total of 5 days as described in the Materials and Methods. The concentrations of accumulated lipids were measured by the Oil Red O staining method. (B-G) Marker gene mRNA expressions in the C2C12 cells grown in adipocyte differentiation medium were monitored by real-time RT-PCR analysis using the specific primer set for each of the genes. The data indicate relative expressions compared to cells grown in growth medium after normalization with GAPDH mRNA expression. Error bars indicate standard deviations (n = 3). Asterisks (*: p p < 0.001) indicate that the difference is statistically significant between two groups.</p

    Effects of Oligo-CS treatment on TRAP, CTSK, and MMP-1 mRNA expression in osteoclast differentiating RAW264 cells.

    No full text
    RAW264 cells were stimulated with sRANKL to differentiate osteoclasts together with indicated concentrations of CS or Oligo-CS for 5 days. The total RNA isolated from the cells was subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis using the respective specific primer set for TRAP, CTSK, and MMP-9 mRNA. The data indicate the relative expressions compared with untreated control cells without sRANKL stimulation after normalization with the GAPDH mRNA expression. Error bars indicate the standard deviations (n = 3). Asterisks (*: p < 0.05) indicate that the difference is statistically significantly lower than the sRANKL stimulated control.</p

    Oligo-CS increases cell viability of C2C12 cells in myotube differentiation medium.

    No full text
    C2C12 cells were grown in the differentiation medium with the indicated concentrations of CS or Oligo-CS to differentiate into myotube cells for 72 hours as described in the Materials and Methods. (A) Morphological changes of the C2C12 cells were monitored by phase contrast microscopy. (B) Protein expression of myosin heavy chain (MYH) in C2C12 cells grown in differentiation medium was analyzed by Western blotting. The whole cell lysate containing 10 ╬╝g protein was applied to each lane. Anti-╬▓-actin antibody was used for the loading control. (C, D) C2C12 cells were grown in growth medium (C) or differentiation medium (D) with the indicated concentration of CS or Oligo-CS for 72 hours. The cell viability of the cells was monitored using Cell Counting Kit 8. The data are shown as percentage of cell viabilities against untreated control cells. Error bars indicate standard deviations (n = 3). The triple asterisk (***) shown in the graph indicates that the difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001) compared to the control.</p

    Raw and analyzed data for the graphs shown in Figs 2C, 3, 4C, 4D, 5, and 6.

    No full text
    Raw and analyzed data for the graphs shown in Figs 2C, 3, 4C, 4D, 5, and 6.</p

    The effects of CS and Oligo-CS on mRNA expression of marker genes.

    No full text
    C2C12 cells were grown in differentiation medium containing the indicated concentrations of CS or Oligo-CS for 72 hours. Then, the cells were harvested, and the total RNA isolated from the cells was subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis using the specific primer set for each of the genes. The data indicate relative expressions compared to untreated control cells after normalization with the GAPDH mRNA expression. Error bars indicate standard deviations (n = 3). Asterisks (*: p p < 0.001) indicate that the difference is statistically significant compared to the control.</p

    Uncropped images for Western blotting data shown in Fig 4B.

    No full text
    Uncropped images for Western blotting data shown in Fig 4B.</p

    Molecular structure of CS (sodium salt) structural isomer variants.

    No full text
    Molecular structure of CS (sodium salt) structural isomer variants.</p
    corecore