18 research outputs found

    Determination of drug distributions in decomposed and buried postmortem tissues and bones of pigs administered of drugs

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    Purpose: Interpretation of drug levels in decomposed and buried corpses is difficult. We aimed to determine postmortem distribution of drugs in putrefied-decomposed visceral tissues and buried bones, and the effect of decomposition and burial on distribution of drugs in organs and bone tissues by administering drug groups selected from various drug classes to domestic pigs. Methods: Pigs were divided into groups (n = 5) and dosed with a variety of drugs. Peripheral blood, organ and bone samples in different anatomical locations were collected from pigs killed. Organ samples were collected at postmortem 4th, 24th, 48th, 72nd and 96th hour. Then the corpses were buried below soil ground. Bone samples from buried corpses were collected at 5th and 10th months of the burial time by exhumation. All samples were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after making sample preparation using appropriate methods. Results: Only 10 of the 14 drugs were detected in the initial peripheral blood. For all bone types analyzed, highest drug levels were detected at thorax region and lowest drug levels were detected at the lower extremity. Given the fact that most of the soft tissue is located in the thorax region, it is possible that during the decomposition process, drugs partitioned from the liquefied tissue into bones. That the drug levels in bones decreased was observed when exhumation was done at 10th month of the burial time. Conclusions: Drug distribution in organ and bone of decomposed and burial corpses vary due to unknown mechanisms and completely unexplained conditions such as postmortem redistribution. © 2019, Japanese Association of Forensic Toxicology.TF2013YL14This work was supported by Research Fund of the Cukurova University (Project Number: TF2013YL14)

    Role of potassium channels in the frequency-dependent activity of regenerating nerves

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    PubMedID: 15452364After a peripheral nerve injury, ion channel organization and the electrical properties of nerve fibers drastically change during the regeneration process. The present study was designed to compare the frequency-dependent characteristics of regenerating nerves in the presence of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium (TEA). The results showed that increasing the stimulus frequency produced a greater impulse blockade (frequency-dependent block - FDB) and distinct hyperpolarizing afterpotentials (HAPs) in regenerating nerves. In particular, regenerating sciatic nerves 15 days postcrush (dpc) were more sensitive to the frequency-dependent stimulations than 38-dpc and intact nerves in the presence or absence of drugs. The frequency-dependent effects of TEA on the compound action potentials (CAPs) appeared when TEA was applied to 4-AP-treated nerves. This shows that TEA-sensitive channels may not be masked by the myelin. 4-AP was here found to have more pronounced frequency-dependent effects on regenerating nerves than on intact nerves. Delayed depolarization (in 38-dpc: 22.6 ¬Ī 1.3 mV and 47.52 ¬Ī 3.63 ms, in intact: 12.0 ¬Ī 1.9 mV and 88.51 ¬Ī 4.72 ms) elicited by 4-AP resulted in an increase in FDBs and HAP amplitudes. These results suggest that 4-AP-sensitive channels may play important roles in frequency-dependent nerve conduction. Consequently, regenerating or myelin damaged nerves are more sensitive to repetitive firing with or without drug. An understanding of the frequencydependent properties of regenerating nerves may be of value in the treatment of the nerve diseases. Copyright ¬© 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

    Effects of caffeine on neuronal apoptosis in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

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    PubMedID: 24392823Objective: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in rat pups leads to strong activation of apoptosis, and apoptosis contributes significantly to cerebral damage in the perinatal period. Caffeine displays a broad array of actions on the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on neuronal apoptosis in a hypoxic-ischemic neonatal model. Methods: Twenty-four seven-day-old Wistar rat pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation and hypoxia for 2h. Sham group (n=8) had a median neck incision, but the rats were not subjected to ligation or hypoxia. The pups were treated with 20mg/kg/day caffeine citrate (n=8) or saline (n=8) immediately before HI and at 0, 24, 48 and 72h post-hypoxia. Neuronal apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and caspase-3 in the hippocampus and parietal cortex of both hemispheres. Results: The numbers of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus and parietal cortex were significantly higher in the saline group than they were in the sham group (p<0.0001). The number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus (p<0.0001) and parietal cortex (p<0.0001, TUNEL and p=0.001, caspase-3) were higher in the caffeine-treated group than they were in the sham group, but the number of apoptotic cells decreased significantly in the caffeine-treated group compared with the saline group in the hippocampus (p<0.0001, TUNEL and p=0.001, caspase-3) and parietal cortex (p=0.001, TUNEL and p=0.002, caspase-3). Conclusions: We show that caffeine administration in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury reduces neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain. We suggest that caffeine may be effective in reducing brain injury. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd

    Changes in electrophysiological properties of regenerating rat peripheral nerves after crush injury

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    PubMedID: 15182946The conduction of action potential in peripheral nerves requires the coordinated opening and closing of Na+ and K+ channels. In the present study, we used the sucrose-gap recording technique to determine the electrophysiological changes of the regenerating nerves after sciatic nerve injury by using 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and lidocaine. 4-AP enhanced the amplitude and duration of the compound action potentials (CAPs) of regenerating sciatic nerve 15 days post crush (15 dpc), and elicited delayed depolarizations (Del-dep) in 38 dpc and intact groups. Hyperpolarizing afterpotentials elicited by 4-AP were completely removed by TEA in both 15 and 38 dpc. Lidocaine effectively blocked the CAP amplitude. This blockage was more pronounced in 15 dpc than 38 dpc. This agent also exhibited a partial blockage on the Del-dep amplitude. These results may indicate that the changes in the activities of 4-AP- and TEA-sensitive K+ channels and slow Na+ channels may play critical roles in nerve excitability and conduction. © 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.SBE-2002D18, SBAG-2554This work was supported by The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey SBAG-2554 and Cukurova University Research Foundation Grant SBE-2002D18. We thank M. Guven for technical assistance

    Comparison of platelet rich plasma versus fibrin glue on colonic anastomoses in rats

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    PubMedID: 29768536Purpose: To compare platelet rich plasma (PRP) and fibrin glue about the effect of anastomotic healing.Methods: Thirty six Wistar-Albino male rats diveded into 3 groups according to control(Group1), PRP (Group 2) and fibrin glue(Tisseel VH) (Group 3).The colon was transected with scissor and subsequently an end to end anastomosis was performed using continuous one layer 6/0 vicryl sutures.Postoperative 7th day effect of anastomotic healing measuring with tissue hydroxyproline(TH) level and anastomotic bursting pressure(ABP); moreover comparison of cytokine (IL-6 and IL-10) and procalcitonin levels on 1st,3rd and 7th days.Results: There was no statistically significant difference of the ABP and hydroxyproline levels between PRP and fibrin glue on the 7th day.There was no statistically significant difference between levels of proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6) (P=0.41), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) (P=0.35), and procalcitonin levels (P=0.63) on 1, 3 and 7 days.Conclusion: Fibrin glue and platelet rich plasma are shown to be effective in healing intestinal anastomoses without superior to each other. © 2018, Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento de Pesquisa em Cirurgia. All rights reserved

    The effect of edaravone on ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat ovary

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    PubMedID: 22445304Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of edaravone on experimentally induced ovarian torsion/detorsion ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Study desig

    The effectiveness of hesperidin in the prevention of bacterial translocation caused by methotrexate in the gastrointestinal tract [Metotreksati{dotless}n neden oldugu gastrointestinal kanaldan bakteriyel translokasyonun önlenmesinde hesperidinin etkinligi]

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    Methotrexate (MTX) is an antimetabolite that it is widely used in childhood cancers. Gastrointestinal toxicity stemming from oxidative damage is an important factor limiting its use. MTX causes morphological damage in the mucosa of the small intestine and serious barrier function disorder. Bacterial translocation can be seen when intestinal barrier functions are deteriorated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hesperidin, a powerful antioxidant, in the prevention of bacterial translocation caused by MTX. Rats were given a single intraperitoneal dose of MTX at 20 mg/kg body weight. Hesperidin was given with oral gavage at 200 mg/kg body weight through 5 days. On the 6th day, biopsy specimens from the ileocecal region, ascending colon and mesenteric lymph nodes were placed in culture media. Increased intestinal bacteria growth was found and prominent bacterial translocation were determined in the MTX group (P&lt;0.05). Hesperidin significantly reduced the growth load and bacterial translocation. This study showed that hesperidin protects against translocation by preventing damage caused by MTX

    Genotoxic potential of cyfluthrin

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    PubMedID: 18692594Cyfluthrin (CAS no. 68359-37-5), a synthetic fluorinated pyrethroid insecticide, is widely used in the home environment and in agriculture because of its high activity against a broad spectrum of insect pests and its low animal toxicity. There are no adequate data on genotoxic effects of cyfluthrin. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential genotoxic effects of cyfluthrin. The genotoxicity of cyfluthrin was evaluated, in vitro, by assessing the ability of the insecticide to induce gene mutation (evaluated using the Ames/microsome test), chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) formation in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Additionally, CAs and cytotoxicity induced by cyfluthrin were investigated in rat (Rattus norvegicus var. Albinos) bone-marrow cells to assess in vivo genotoxicity of cyfluthrin. The counts of reverse mutations in Salmonella typhimurium were not significantly increased (P > 0.05). The frequency of CAs in human lymphocytes, treated with any concentration of cyfluthrin (500, 1000 or 2000 ¬Ķg/ml) for a 24-h period, was not significantly increased (P > 0.05). In contrast, CA was significantly increased for the highest two concentrations (1000 and 2000 ¬Ķg/ml) in the 48-h treatment group compared with the control group (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO). Micronucleus formation was significantly (P 0.05). Mitotic index (MI), proliferation index (PI) and nuclear division index (NDI) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) due to the potential cytotoxicity of cyfluthrin, especially after the 48-h treatment period. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in bone-marrow cells of rats treated with the test substance increased significantly (P < 0.05) for all doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight) for the two treatment periods (12 and 24 h) and the two administration routes, viz. intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) and oral gavage (gvg). In vivo cytotoxicity of cyfluthrin was detected only after administration by gavage for the 24-h treatment period. All these findings were not dose-dependent. ¬© 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Assessment of the antimicrobial effect of manuka honey in the implant-related spinal infections in rats [Deneysel i¬∑mplant i¬∑liŇükili spinal enfeksiyon modelinde manuka honeyin antibakteriyel etkisinin degerlendirilmesi]

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    Aim: Implant-related infections in spinal surgical procedures are still an important problem despite all the precautions. Various methods and medicinal products have been applied in order to prevent implant-related infections. "Manuka honey" is a type of honey which has been approved by FDA as a medicinal product. "Manuka honey" has bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects on "methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus" which is the most frequently isolated bacteria. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether as an inexpensive and natural product, honey would prevent infection growth on rats in the implant related infection model. Method: Rats were divided into 3 groups, each of which containing 8 rats:namely, the control, infection and treatment groups. In the 1st group, there was no bacterial proliferation. Planted standard MRSA strain has been detected on rats belonging to the groups 2 and 3. On the vertebral column and implants, bacterial growth was greater in the 2nd group than the 3rd group. Also more bacterial colony growth has been detected in 2nd group as compared to 3rd group. While this difference was deemed significant in implant, the same did not apply to vertebral column. Result: Manuka honey could not completely eradicate the MRSA infection; however, it did decrease the intensity of the infection. If manuka honey, through constituting a different model, could be used in infections regularly, more objective and promising results would be revealed. Moreover, we consider that experimenting "manuka honey" on different bacteria including other Staph. aureus strains would be appropriate through constituting different models

    Therapeutic Potential of Pterostilbene and Resveratrol on Biomechanic, Biochemical, and Histological Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Aims. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pterostilbene (PTS) (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene) and resveratrol (RSV) (trans-3,5,4' trihydroxystilbene) applied at different doses for the treatment of streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods. At the end of the 5-week experimental period, the right gastrocnemius muscles of the rats were examined biomechanically, while the left ones were examined histologically. In addition, blood glucose, serum insulin, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were analyzed in blood samples taken from the rats. Results. The skeletal muscle isometric contraction forces, which showed a decrease with diabetes, were observed to increase with antioxidant applications. Blood glucose, serum insulin, and MDA levels in diabetic rats approached normal levels after applying PTS. When the electron microscopic images of the rat skeletal muscle were examined, those in the combination treatment group were observed to show a better enhancement in the skeletal muscle morphological structure compared to the other diabetic and treatment groups. Conclusion. According to the findings, we suggest that these antioxidant treatments might have good therapeutic nutraceutical potential for some muscle diseases that coexist with diabetes. These treatments should be comprehensively investigated in the future. ¬© 2018 Bora Tastekin et al.The research was supported by the C¬ł ukurova University Scientific Research Foundation (Project no. TSA-2016-4958). Thanks are due to the Sabinsa Corporation for the supply of antioxidants
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