1,832 research outputs found

    Upgrade of the CMS Instrumentation for luminosity and machine induced background measurements

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    AbstractTo optimise performance with the higher luminosity, higher beam energy and shorter bunch spacing of 25 ns at the LHC after 2014, an upgrade program is performed for the detectors to measure the luminosity and machine induced background. A new detector is the pixel luminosity telescope consisting of 8 telescopes, equipped with silicon pixel sensors, on both ends of the interactions point. The Fast Beam Conditions Monitoring system, using diamond sensors, is upgraded to 24 sensors, 12 on each end of the IP. In addition, dedicated fast ASICs produced in 130 nm commercial CMOS technology and dead-time free backend electronics using FPGAs for fast signal processing are being developed and built. Also, the part of the forward HCAL used for the luminosity measurement is instrumented with new readout electronics, in microTCA standards. The machine induced background measurement will be supported by a new system of direction sensitive quartz Cherenkov counters, with excellent time resolution. A data acquisition architecture is being developed that is common for all subsystems and allows for synchronization across different hardware. The design of the new system will be presented, and a report will be given on the performance of each subsystem measured in several test-beam campaigns and prototype operation in the last LHC run

    Description of radiation damage in diamond sensors using an effective defect model

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    The BCML system is a beam monitoring device in the CMS experiment at the LHC. As detectors poly-crystalline diamond sensors are used. Here high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the CCE. However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is so much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the rate of incident particles. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field, which in turn increases the trapping rate and hence reduces the CCE even further. In order to connect these macroscopic measurements with the microscopic defects acting as traps for the ionization charge the TCAD simulation program SILVACO was used. Two effective acceptor and donor levels were needed to fit the data. Using this effective defect model the highly non- linear rate dependent diamond polarization as function of the particle rate environment and the resulting signal loss could be simulated

    Fast Beam Condition Monitor for CMS: performance and upgrade

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    The CMS beam and radiation monitoring subsystem BCM1F (Fast Beam Condition Monitor) consists of 8 individual diamond sensors situated around the beam pipe within the pixel detector volume, for the purpose of fast bunch-by-bunch monitoring of beam background and collision products. In addition, effort is ongoing to use BCM1F as an online luminosity monitor. BCM1F will be running whenever there is beam in LHC, and its data acquisition is independent from the data acquisition of the CMS detector, hence it delivers luminosity even when CMS is not taking data. A report is given on the performance of BCM1F during LHC run I, including results of the van der Meer scan and on-line luminosity monitoring done in 2012. In order to match the requirements due to higher luminosity and 25 ns bunch spacing, several changes to the system must be implemented during the upcoming shutdown, including upgraded electronics and precise gain monitoring. First results from Run II preparation are shown.Comment: 10 pages, 8 figures. To be published in NIM A as proceedings for the 9th Hiroshima Symposium on Semiconductor Tracking Detectors (2013

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an