228 research outputs found

    Physical activity monitoring during hospital stay: a validation study

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    Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity of the PAM AM400 accelerometer for measuring physical activity in usual care in hospitalized patients by comparing it with the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. Materials and methods: This was a prospective single centre observational study performed at the University Medical Centre Utrecht in The Netherlands. Patients admitted to different clinical wards were included. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) were computed using a two-way mixed model with random subjects. Additionally, Bland-Altman plots were made to visualize the level of agreement of the PAM with the ActiGraph. To test for proportional bias, a regression analysis was performed. Results: In total 17 patients from different clinical wards were included in the analyses. The level of agreement between the PAM and ActiGraph was found strong with an ICC of 0.955. The Bland-Altman analyses showed a mean difference of 1.12min between the two accelerometers and no proportional bias (p¬ľ0.511). Conclusions: The PAM is a suitable movement sensor to validly measure the active minutes of hospitalized patients. Implementation of this device in daily care might be helpful to change the immobility culture in hospitals

    Impact of curative treatment on the physical fitness of patients with esophageal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background: Esophageal cancer and curative treatment have a significant impact on the physical fitness of patients. Knowledge about the course of physical fitness during neoadjuvant therapy and esophagectomy is helpful to determine the needs for interventions during and after curative treatment. This study aims to review the current evidence on the impact of curative treatment on the physical fitness of patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and the Cochrane Library was conducted up to March 29, 2021. We included observational studies investigating the change of physical fitness (including exercise capacity, muscle strength, physical activity and activities of daily living) from pre-to post-neoadjuvant therapy and/or from pre-to post-esophagectomy. Quality of the studies was assessed and a meta-analysis was performed using standardized mean differences. Results: Twenty-seven articles were included. After neoadjuvant therapy, physical fitness decreased significantly. In the first three months after surgery, physical fitness was also significantly decreased compared to preoperative values. Subgroup analysis showed a restore in exercise capacity three months after surgery in patients who followed an exercise program. Six months after surgery, there was limited evidence that exercise capacity restored to preoperative values. Conclusion: Curative treatment seems to result in a decrease of physical fitness in patients with esophageal cancer, up to three months postoperatively. Six months postoperatively, results were conflicting. In patients who followed a pre- or postoperative exercise program, the postoperative impact of curative treatment seems to be less

    Family forerunners? : parental separation and partnership formation in 16 countries

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    First published online: 01 May 2020Objective To analyze the relationships between parental separation and partnership formation patterns across 16 countries and over time, and how the relationships are shaped by contextual factors.Background Several studies have found that parental separation predicts higher rates of cohabitation and lower rates of marriage. Few studies have analyzed these relationships over time or across countries, and none have systematically analyzed whether they are moderated by contextual factors.Method Retrospective partnership histories on 138,739 women and men from the Generations and Gender Survey and Harmonized Histories datafiles were used. Monthly data on entry into cohabitation or marriage as the first coresidential union, and on entry into marriage were analyzed using life table and event history techniques. The overall incidences of parental separation and of premarital cohabitation were used as contextual-level measures in the event history analyses.Results The association between parental separation and partnership formation was moderated by the spread of premarital cohabitation. Higher incidence of cohabitation was associated with a weaker positive association between parental separation and cohabitation, and a more negative association between parental separation and marriage. The associations between parental separation and partnership formation were not weaker when parental separation was more common.Conclusion Children of divorce have been among the forerunners of the increase in cohabitation and the retreat from marriage

    Family Forerunners? Parental Separation and Partnership Formation in 16 Countries

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    Objective To analyze the relationships between parental separation and partnership formation patterns across 16 countries and over time, and how the relationships are shaped by contextual factors. Background Several studies have found that parental separation predicts higher rates of cohabitation and lower rates of marriage. Few studies have analyzed these relationships over time or across countries, and none have systematically analyzed whether they are moderated by contextual factors. Method Retrospective partnership histories on 138,739 women and men from the Generations and Gender Survey and Harmonized Histories datafiles were used. Monthly data on entry into cohabitation or marriage as the first coresidential union, and on entry into marriage were analyzed using life table and event history techniques. The overall incidences of parental separation and of premarital cohabitation were used as contextual‚Äźlevel measures in the event history analyses. Results The association between parental separation and partnership formation was moderated by the spread of premarital cohabitation. Higher incidence of cohabitation was associated with a weaker positive association between parental separation and cohabitation, and a more negative association between parental separation and marriage. The associations between parental separation and partnership formation were not weaker when parental separation was more common. Conclusion Children of divorce have been among the forerunners of the increase in cohabitation and the retreat from marriage

    Family Forerunners? Parental Separation and Partnership Formation in 16 Countries

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    Objective To analyze the relationships between parental separation and partnership formation patterns across 16 countries and over time, and how the relationships are shaped by contextual factors. Background Several studies have found that parental separation predicts higher rates of cohabitation and lower rates of marriage. Few studies have analyzed these relationships over time or across countries, and none have systematically analyzed whether they are moderated by contextual factors. Method Retrospective partnership histories on 138,739 women and men from the Generations and Gender Survey and Harmonized Histories datafiles were used. Monthly data on entry into cohabitation or marriage as the first coresidential union, and on entry into marriage were analyzed using life table and event history techniques. The overall incidences of parental separation and of premarital cohabitation were used as contextual‚Äźlevel measures in the event history analyses. Results The association between parental separation and partnership formation was moderated by the spread of premarital cohabitation. Higher incidence of cohabitation was associated with a weaker positive association between parental separation and cohabitation, and a more negative association between parental separation and marriage. The associations between parental separation and partnership formation were not weaker when parental separation was more common. Conclusion Children of divorce have been among the forerunners of the increase in cohabitation and the retreat from marriage

    Amsterdam Centre for Inequality Studies (AMCIS) Working Paper Series Ethnic composition of schools and school performances in secondary education of Turkish migrant students in 7 countries and 19 European educational systems

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    Summary. This article examines the effect of the ethnic school composition on school performances in secondary education for Turkish students, using both cross-national PISA 2009 and Swiss national PISA 2009 data. We argue how social capital theory beside other theories can explain a part of the ethnic composition effect. We employ three indicators of the ethnic composition of a school: the native share, the share of co-ethnics and the ethnic diversity (we employ a residualized score of diversity on the proportion of migrants). Our results show no effect of the proportion of natives on math performances. Furthermore, we show a negative association between ethnic diversity and math performances. Nevertheless, we find a positive association between ethnic diversity and reading performances in The Netherlands. Children of Turkish decent have higher math performances if they are in an educational system with a larger community of co-ethnics and if they are in an educational system with native students with average higher school performances. Finally we find no association between an early comprehensive labor agreement and math performances

    Curricular Tracking and Central Examinations: Counterbalancing the Impact of Social Background on Student Achievement in 36 Countries*

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    Abstract Tracked educational systems are associated with a greater social inequality in children's educational achievement. Until now research has assumed that the impact of tracking on the inequality of educational opportunity is independent of other educational institutional features. Using data from the 2006 PISA survey, we study how central examinations affect the association between tracking and inequality. We find that parent's social class has a larger effect on student achievement in systems without central examinations, whereas in systems with central examinations this relationship is attenuated. We argue that central examinations help hold schools accountable for their performance, thereby making it more likely for schools to allocate students to tracks and reward them on the basis of objective indicators, thereby reducing the impact of parental status on children's performance
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