93 research outputs found

    Genetic identification of avian samples recovered from solar energy installations.

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    Renewable energy production and development will drastically affect how we meet global energy demands, while simultaneously reducing the impact of climate change. Although the possible effects of renewable energy production (mainly from solar- and wind-energy facilities) on wildlife have been explored, knowledge gaps still exist, and collecting data from wildlife remains (when negative interactions occur) at energy installations can act as a first step regarding the study of species and communities interacting with facilities. In the case of avian species, samples can be collected relatively easily (as compared to other sampling methods), but may only be able to be identified when morphological characteristics are diagnostic for a species. Therefore, many samples that appear as partial remains, or "feather spots"-known to be of avian origin but not readily assignable to species via morphology-may remain unidentified, reducing the efficiency of sample collection and the accuracy of patterns observed. To obtain data from these samples and ensure their identification and inclusion in subsequent analyses, we applied, for the first time, a DNA barcoding approach that uses mitochondrial genetic data to identify unknown avian samples collected at solar facilities to species. We also verified and compared identifications obtained by our genetic method to traditional morphological identifications using a blind test, and discuss discrepancies observed. Our results suggest that this genetic tool can be used to verify, correct, and supplement identifications made in the field and can produce data that allow accurate comparisons of avian interactions across facilities, locations, or technology types. We recommend implementing this genetic approach to ensure that unknown samples collected are efficiently identified and contribute to a better understanding of wildlife impacts at renewable energy projects

    Perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child and adolescent psychiatric services after 1 year (February/March 2021): ESCAP CovCAP survey

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    International audienceIn April 2020, the European Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (ESCAP) Research Academy and the ESCAP Board launched the first questionnaire of the CovCAP longitudinal survey to estimate the impact of COVID-19 on child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) services in Europe. In this brief report, we present the main findings from the second questionnaire of the survey, one year after the COVID-19 pandemic began to hit Europe (i.e., February/March 2021). While service delivery to patients and their families was affected in a major way (reported by 68%) at the beginning of the pandemic, the majority of respondents (59%) in this second survey only reported a minor impact on care delivery. The use of telemedicine remained widespread (91%) but the proportion of CAP services partially closed or transformed to accommodate COVID-19 patients (59% in 2020) dropped to 20%. On the other hand, the perceived impact on the mental health and psychopathology of children and adolescents dramatically increased from "medium" (> 50%) in 2020 to "strong" or "extreme" (80%) in 2021. Four nosographic entities were particularly impacted: suicidal crises, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and major depressive episodes. Accordingly, this was associated with a substantial increase in the number of referrals or requests for assessments (91% reported an increase in 2021 while 61% reported a decrease in 2020). Finally, heads of the CAP departments expressed strong concerns regarding the management of the long-term consequences of this crisis, especially regarding the provision of care in light of the perceived increase in referrals

    Differences in insectivore bird diets in coffee agroecosystems driven by obligate or generalist guild, shade management, season, and year

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    Neotropical shade-grown coffee systems are renowned for their potential to conserve avian biodiversity. Yet, little is known about food resources consumed by insectivorous birds in these systems, the extent of resource competition between resident and migratory birds, or how management of shade trees might influence diet selection. We identified arthropods in stomach contents from obligate and generalist insectivorous birds captured in mist-nets at five coffee farms in Chiapas, Mexico between 2001-2003. Overall stomach contents from 938 individuals revealed dietary differences resulting from changes in seasons, years, and foraging guilds. Of four species sampled across all management systems, Yellow-green Vireo (Vireo flavoviridis) prey differed depending on coffee shade management, consuming more ants in shaded monoculture than polyculture systems. Diets of obligate and generalist resident insectivores were 72% dissimilar with obligate insectivores consuming more Coleoptera and Araneae, and generalist insectivores consuming more Formicidae and other Hymenoptera. This suggests that obligate insectivores target more specialized prey whereas generalist insectivores rely on less favorable, chemically-defended prey found in clumped distributions. Our dataset provides important natural history data for many Nearctic-Neotropical migrants such as Tennessee Warbler (Leiothlypis peregrina; N = 163), Nashville Warbler (Leiothlypis ruficapilla; N = 69), and Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus; N = 68) and tropical residents including Red-legged Honeycreepers (Cyanerpes cyaneus; N = 70) and Rufous-capped Warblers (Basileuterus rufifrons; N = 56). With declining arthropod populations worldwide, understanding the ecological interactions between obligate and generalist avian insectivores gives researchers the tools to evaluate community stability and inform conservation efforts

    Les banques centrales servent-elles nos intérêts?

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    Ce livre est une critique précise du mandat des banques centrales et une proposition de réforme. Il a été écrit par des universitaires pour des non-spécialistes. Le modèle d'indépendance de la Banque centrale, qui a vu le jour dans les années 1990, doit être réévalué à la lumière de l'économie moderne et du rôle joué par les banques centrales après la crise financière mondiale de 2007. Les auteurs expliquent comment et pourquoi le mandat des banques centrales a été défini de manière restrictive dans le monde occidental et comment le rôle des banques centrales a changé après la crise financière de 2007, lorsque la Banque centrale européenne (BCE), la Réserve fédérale (Fed) aux Etats-Unis et la Banque d'Angleterre (BoE) ont utilisé le pouvoir qui leur était dévolu par leur monopole sur la publication d'un cours légal pour injecter des liquidités dans l'économie pour gonfler le bilan des banques. Les auteurs concentrent leurs discussions sur ces trois banques centrales. Il existe des politiques alternatives qu'il est urgent de mettre en place

    Les banques centrales et la justice sociale

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    Dans cet article, nous présentons deux arguments en faveur d’une attention accrue des banques centrales à l’égard des implications distributives des politiques monétaires. En mobilisant la doctrine du double effet, nous montrons que la responsabilité des banquiers centraux quant aux effets distributifs de leurs politiques monétaires non conventionnelles est engagée. De plus, étant donné que le levier traditionnel de la fiscalité fait face à de sérieuses difficultés aujourd’hui, l’appui des banques centrales pourrait être décisif pour la réduction des inégalités économiques. Nous évaluons ensuite les arguments théoriques et empiriques soulevés par les banquiers centraux contre cette proposition. Nous concluons que ces objections ne minent pas l’attrait d’une responsabilité des banques centrales en matière de distribution.This article puts forward two arguments calling for central banks to pay more attention to the distributive consequences of their policies. Appealing to the doctrine of double effect, we show that it is hard for central bankers do deny responsibility for the distributive consequences of their unconventional monetary policy. Furthermore, given that the hands of fiscal policy are largely tied today, the sensitivity of central banks to distributive issues could be decisive in the reduction of economic inequalities. The article then assesses central bankers’ theoretical and empirical arguments against the idea that distributive issues should figure in their decision making. We conclude that their objections do not undermine the plausibility of this idea

    The ethics of central banking

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    Central banks represent one of the key institutions of modern societies. The task of these institutions is to promote the common good. We provide three reasons to believe that, at least since the 2007 financial crisis, central banks do not live up to this task. First, their actions have serious unintended consequences, notably on economic inequalities. Second, while the independence of central banks from governments has been ensured, the leverage of financial markets on central banks has been neglected. Finally, the epistemic community of central bankers does not satisfy the conditions of an effective error-correction mechanism on monetary issues
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