4,922 research outputs found

    Time-Domain Measurement of Broadband Coherent Cherenkov Radiation

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    We report on further analysis of coherent microwave Cherenkov impulses emitted via the Askaryan mechanism from high-energy electromagnetic showers produced at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In this report, the time-domain based analysis of the measurements made with a broadband (nominally 1-18 GHz) log periodic dipole array antenna is described. The theory of a transmit-receive antenna system based on time-dependent effective height operator is summarized and applied to fully characterize the measurement antenna system and to reconstruct the electric field induced via the Askaryan process. The observed radiation intensity and phase as functions of frequency were found to agree with expectations from 0.75-11.5 GHz within experimental errors on the normalized electric field magnitude and the relative phase; 0.039 microV/MHz/TeV and 17 deg, respectively. This is the first time this agreement has been observed over such a broad bandwidth, and the first measurement of the relative phase variation of an Askaryan pulse. The importance of validation of the Askaryan mechanism is significant since it is viewed as the most promising way to detect cosmogenic neutrino fluxes at E > 10^15 eV.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figures, accepted by Phys. Rev.

    Experimental Limit on the Cosmic Diffuse Ultra-high Energy Neutrino Flux

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    We report results from 120 hours of livetime with the Goldstone Lunar Ultra-high energy neutrino Experiment (GLUE). The experiment searches for <10 ns microwave pulses from the lunar regolith, appearing in coincidence at two large radio telescopes separated by 22 km and linked by optical fiber. Such pulses would arise from subsurface electromagnetic cascades induced by interactions of >= 100 EeV neutrinos in the lunar regolith. No candidates are yet seen, and the implied limits constrain several current models for ultra-high energy neutrino fluxes.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, revtex4 style. New intro section, Fig. 2, Fig 4; in final PRL revie

    Picosecond timing of Microwave Cherenkov Impulses from High-Energy Particle Showers Using Dielectric-loaded Waveguides

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    We report on the first measurements of coherent microwave impulses from high-energy particle-induced electromagnetic showers generated via the Askaryan effect in a dielectric-loaded waveguide. Bunches of 12.16 GeV electrons with total bunch energy of 103104\sim 10^3-10^4 GeV were pre-showered in tungsten, and then measured with WR-51 rectangular (12.6 mm by 6.3 mm) waveguide elements loaded with solid alumina (Al2O3Al_2 O_3) bars. In the 5-8 GHz TE10TE_{10} single-mode band determined by the presence of the dielectric in the waveguide, we observed band-limited microwave impulses with amplitude proportional to bunch energy. Signals in different waveguide elements measuring the same shower were used to estimate relative time differences with 2.3 picosecond precision. These measurements establish a basis for using arrays of alumina-loaded waveguide elements, with exceptional radiation hardness, as very high precision timing planes for high-energy physics detectors.Comment: 16 pages, 15 figure

    Limit on UHE Neutrino Flux from the Parkes Lunar Radio Cherenkov Experiment

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    The first search for ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos using a radio telescope was conducted by Hankins, Ekers and O'Sullivan (1996). This was a search for nanosecond duration radio Cherenkov pulses from electromagnetic cascades initiated by ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino interactions in the lunar regolith, and was made using a broad-bandwidth receiver fitted to the Parkes radio telescope, Australia. At the time, no simulations were available to convert the null result into a neutrino flux limit. Since then, similar experiments at Goldstone, USA, and Kalyazin, Russia, have also recorded null results, and computer simulations have been used to model the experimental sensitivities of these two experiments and put useful limits on the UHE neutrino flux. Proposed future experiments include the use of broad-bandwidth receivers, making the sensitivity achieved by the Parkes experiment highly relevant to the future prospects of this field. We have therefore calculated the effective aperture for the Parkes experiment and found that when pointing at the lunar limb, the effective aperture at all neutrino energies was superior to single-antenna, narrow-bandwidth experiments, and that the detection threshold was comparable to that of the double-antenna experiment at Goldstone. However, because only a small fraction of the observing time was spent pointing the limb, the Parkes experiment places only comparatively weak limits on the UHE neutrino flux. Future efforts should use multiple telescopes and broad-bandwidth receivers.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Development Toward a Ground-Based Interferometric Phased Array for Radio Detection of High Energy Neutrinos

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    The in-ice radio interferometric phased array technique for detection of high energy neutrinos looks for Askaryan emission from neutrinos interacting in large volumes of glacial ice, and is being developed as a way to achieve a low energy threshold and a large effective volume at high energies. The technique is based on coherently summing the impulsive Askaryan signal from multiple antennas, which increases the signal-to-noise ratio for weak signals. We report here on measurements and a simulation of thermal noise correlations between nearby antennas, beamforming of impulsive signals, and a measurement of the expected improvement in trigger efficiency through the phased array technique. We also discuss the noise environment observed with an analog phased array at Summit Station, Greenland, a possible site for an interferometric phased array for radio detection of high energy neutrinos.Comment: 13 Pages, 14 Figure