3,250 research outputs found

    Strategic planning optimisation of "Napoli Est" water distribution system

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    The District Meter Areas (DMA) design is an innovative methodology of water networks management, based on the pressure patterns control and on the water flows monitoring, in order to reduce water losses and to optimize the water systems management. A District Meter Area is an area supplied from few water inputs, into which discharges can be easily measured to determine leaks. So, the DMA design represents an alternative to the traditional approach based on heavy looped distribution network. In the present paper the DMA design of the ‚ÄúNapoli Est‚ÄĚ water distribution system (approximately 65.000√∑70.000 customers), performed with the support of the Water Agency ARIN S.p.A., is discussed. After analysis of authorized consumption, by means of a monitoring campaign of water flows over the area, the system water balance was performed, showing significant water losses, as a consequence of high pressure patterns. This situation was confirmed by the high number of maintenance operations performed in the area during the year 2005. In order to characterize the piezometric heads on the network, ARIN S.p.A. supplied to the installation of six pressure transducers in the most vulnerable areas. The water level in the supply reservoir was also measured in order to estimate its influence on the network pressure heads. Hydraulic simulations were carried out with the EPANET software version 2.0 applied to a network layout resulted from the system ‚Äúskeletonization‚ÄĚ, achieved by eliminating out of order pipes, integrating pipelines of same diameter and roughness, replacing dead-end branches and small networks supplied by a single junction with an equivalent discharge. After the skeletonizated network was calibrated, several hypothesis of designing and implementing DMA to reduce physical losses were performed, providing adequate operating pressure of the system. Many numerical simulations were performed to guarantee adequate head pressure especially for peak hours demand, break of transmission mains and fire hydrant service. A chlorine residuals analysis was also effected, by simulating the transport and decay of chlorine through the network. District Meter Areas, therefore, were designed, and the corresponding hydraulic and water quality investigations and simulations were carried out. Six District Meter Areas were planned, assembling 14 intercepting valves and 9 pressure reducing valves to prevent the downstream pressure head from exceeding the set value, achieving a remarkable water saving, approximately equal to 34% of the physical losses, corresponding to 16% of system input volume

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Detector (IBL)

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    The ATLAS Collaboration has decided the construction of a new pixel detector to install in the 2014 shutdown of the LHC machine (SLHC Phase I). The new detector will be inserted between the existing pixel detector (that will remain unchanged) and a new, smaller radius, beampipe. This new detector, at a radius of 3.7 cm, will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. An overview of the project with highlights of the going on developments will be given

    Hungry for change: the Sydney Food Fairness Alliance

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    The Sydney Food Fairness Alliance is one of a growing number of nascent food movements in Australia to have emerged out of concern for the country‚Äôs food future, as well as the deleterious effect the present food system is having on its citizens‚Äô health and the continent‚Äôs fragile environment. The Alliance‚Äôs structure and activities clearly position it as a new social movement (NSM) engaged in collective action on a specific issue, in this instance, food security/justice, and operating outside the political sphere while aiming to influence and affect societal change. Food security as a human right lies at the heart of the Alliance‚Äôs philosophy, and equitable, sustainable food policies for New South Wales are a core focus of its advocacy work. The authors argue that the Alliance is a distinctive food movement in that it positions itself as an \u27umbrella\u27 organization representing a wide range of stakeholders in the food system. This chapter reflects on the values, achievements, issues of concern, strengths and weaknesses, and future of the Sydney Food Fairness Alliance. This resource is Chapter 8 in \u27Food Security in Australia: Challenges and Prospects for the Future\u27 published by Springer in 2013

    High-Frequency Light Rectification by Nanoscale Plasmonic Conical Antenna in Point-Contact-Insulator-Metal Architecture

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    Numerous efforts have been undertaken to develop rectifying antennas operating at high frequencies, especially dedicated to light harvesting and photodetection applications. However, the development of efficient high frequency rectifying antennas has been a major technological challenge both due to a lack of comprehension of the underlying physics and limitations in the fabrication techniques. Various rectification strategies have been implemented, including metal-insulator-metal traveling-wave diodes, plasmonic nanogap optical antennas, and whisker diodes, although all show limited high-frequency operation and modest conversion efficiencies. Here a new type of rectifying antenna based on plasmonic carrier generation is demonstrated. The proposed structure consists of a resonant metallic conical nano-antenna tip in contact with the oxide surface of an oxide/metal bilayer. The conical shape allows for an improved current generation based on plasmon-mediated electromagnetic-to-electron conversion, an effect exploiting the nanoscale-tip contact of the rectifying antenna, and proportional to the antenna resonance and to the surface-electron scattering. Importantly, this solution provides rectification operation at 280 THz (1064 nm) with a 100-fold increase in efficiency compared to previously reported results. Finally, the conical rectifying antenna is also demonstrated to operate at 384 THz (780 nm), hence paving a way toward efficient rectennas toward the visible range

    Mosaicism of alpha-synuclein gene rearrangements: Report of two unrelated cases of early-onset parkinsonism

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    Dear Sir, In genetics, the term ‚Äėmosaicism‚Äô describes the situation in which groups of cells have a different genetic composition to other cells in an organism. Somatic gene rearrangements due to multiplication or deletion of genes (copy number variation) and/or sections of chromosomes can lead to mosaicism. The presence of multiple copies of the alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) is known to be associated with Parkinson‚Äôs disease (PD) and the severity of symptoms increases with the number of copies of the gene [1]. While the features of PD associated with duplication of SNCA are usually (but not always) typical of the condition [2‚Äď3], patients with triplicate copies have atypical features, including rapidly evolving symptoms, severe cognitive impairment, limited response to levodopa, more severe symptoms of dementia and more..

    Foreign Policy and the Ideology of Post-ideology: The Case of Matteo Renzi’s Partito Democratico

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    The post-communist Italian Left has experienced a long phase of ideational misalignment between ideas placed at different levels, as a qualified discursive institutionalist approach demonstrates. Background public philosophies have often clashed with post-communist political ideology, while foreign policy programmes have often contradicted specific policies. Under the leadership of Matteo Renzi, however, the PD is now experiencing a moment of remarkable ideational consistency. Rather than being founded on entirely new premises, this new consensus folds old elements into new ones and shows all the defining traits of post-ideology. Yet, by espousing post-ideology, Renzi is making an ultimately ideological move whose limitations may soon start to show
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