20 research outputs found

    FOXA1 in Breast Cancer: A Luminal Marker with Promising Prognostic and Predictive Impact

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    SIMPLE SUMMARY: Forkhead box A1 protein (FOXA1) is described as a pioneer factor that binds to condensed chromatin, permitting the recruitment of other transcription factors to the DNA. Worthy of note, FOXA1 is an interacting partner of both the estrogen and androgen receptor, playing a crucial role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Moreover, it is necessary for the estrogen-receptor-binding and subsequent transcriptional activation of luminal genes in breast cancer cells. Herein, we review principal roles of FOXA1 in normal and neoplastic tissues, with special attention to its prognostic and predictive role in luminal and non-luminal breast cancers. ABSTRACT: The present review focuses on the function of the forkhead protein FOXA1 in breast cancer (BC) in relation to steroid hormone receptors. We explored the currently available analytic approaches for FOXA1 assessment both at gene and protein levels, comparing the differences between the available techniques used for its diagnostic assessment. In addition, we elaborated on data regarding the prognostic and predictive role of this marker in BC based on several studies that evaluated its expression in relation to the outcome and/or response to therapy. FOXA1, similar to the androgen receptor (AR), may have a dual role in BC according to hormonal status. In luminal cancers, its expression contributes to a better prognosis, while in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC), it implies an adverse outcome. Consequently, we observed that FOXA1-positive expression in a neoadjuvant setting may predict a lack of response in luminal BC as opposed to TNBC, in which FOXA1 allegedly increases its chemosensitivity. In conclusion, considering its accessible and convenient identification by immunohistochemistry, its important impact on prognosis, and its suitability to identify patients with different responses to chemotherapy, we propose that FOXA1 could be tested in routine diagnostics as an additional prognostic and predictive marker in BC

    Dedicated versus mainstreaming approaches in local climate plans in Europe

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    Cities are gaining prominence committing to respond to the threat of climate change, e.g., by developing local climate plans or strategies. However, little is known regarding the approaches and processes of plan development and implementation, or the success and effectiveness of proposed measures. Mainstreaming is regarded as one approach associated with (implementation) success, but the extent of integration of local climate policies and plans in ongoing sectoral and/or development planning is unclear. This paper analyses 885 cities across the 28 European countries to create a first reference baseline on the degree of climate mainstreaming in local climate plans. This will help to compare the benefits of mainstreaming versus dedicated climate plans, looking at policy effectiveness and ultimately delivery of much needed climate change efforts at the city level. All core cities of the European Urban Audit sample were analyzed, and their local climate plans classified as dedicated or mainstreamed in other local policy initiatives. It was found that the degree of mainstreaming is low for mitigation (9% of reviewed cities; 12% of the identified plans) and somewhat higher for adaptation (10% of cities; 29% of plans). In particular horizontal mainstreaming is a major effort for local authorities; an effort that does not necessarily pay off in terms of success of action implementation. This study concludes that climate change issues in local municipalities are best tackled by either, developing a dedicated local climate plan in parallel to a mainstreamed plan or by subsequently developing first the dedicated and later a mainstreaming plan (joint or subsequent “dual track approach”). Cities that currently provide dedicated local climate plans (66% of cities for mitigation; 26% of cities for adaptation) may follow-up with a mainstreaming approach. This promises effective implementation of tangible climate actions as well as subsequent diffusion of climate issues into other local sector policies. The development of only broad sustainability or resilience strategies is seen as critical

    Axillary dissection in patients with preoperative positive nodal cytology: Genuine need or overtreatment?

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    Recent studies demonstrated the possibility to avoid axillary dissection (ALND) in selected patients with one or two metastatic nodes. Otherwise, patients with positive nodal ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) currently undergo ALDN. The aim of this study is to quantify the nodal burden in patients with positive US-FNAC treated with ALND and to evaluate if clinical or pathological characteristics associated with low nodal involvement can be identified. This is a multicentric retrospective study involving 297 patients who underwent ALND because of a positive preoperative US-FNAC. A total of 157 patients showed bulky axillary lymph nodes at diagnosis, and 70% of them had three or more metastatic nodes. One hundred and forty patients had a clinically negative axilla and in 50% of them, 4 or more metastatic nodes were found with axillary dissection. Overall, the median number of metastatic nodes was 5. Favorable pathological characteristics of tumors were found in patients with only one or two metastatic nodes: smaller primary tumor, a lower proportion of grade 3, invasive lobular carcinomas and a higher proportion of low-Ki67 tumors. In the group of patients with clinically negative axilla and potentially meeting ACOSOG Z0011 criteria, 22 (31%) showed less than three metastatic axillary nodes. A preoperative positive axillary FNAC is associated with a metastatic nodal burden significantly higher than in patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Nevertheless, about 30% of patients with cN0 axilla, positive axillary FNAC performed because of suspicious nodes on imaging, T1-2 primary tumor and breast-conserving surgery showed less than three metastatic axillary nodes, thus meeting ACOSOG Z0011 trial's criteria and therefore would be eligible for skipping ALND according to current guidelines

    Types of Corruption in Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs) in Ibadan, Nigeria

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    Corruption is a phenomenon that manifests in various types and forms especially among operators of Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs). Many actions of the operators which constitute corrupt practices often tend to be overlooked in spite of their grave consequences for the success SMEs in Nigeria. The fight against corruption in Nigeria is more concentrated in the formal sector. This study was, therefore, designed to investigate various forms in which corrupt practices are carried out among Small and Micro Enterprises in Ibadan, Nigeria. Business owners, their employees, apprentices and consumers constituted the study population. Primary data were collected using questionnaire administered on 200 business owners, 150 employees and 150 apprentices randomly chosen in five business districts in Ibadan; and the conduct of 10 in-depth interviews with purposively selected participants. Quantitative data were analysed at uni-variate level using simple percentages and frequencies while qualitative data were content analysed. Findings from the study revealed that corrupt practices were rampant among actors in SMEs and the common types of corrupt practices included stealing (60%), deception of customers (78.4%), tax evasion (62%), sale of fake products (76%), sale of expired products (65.2%), tampering with measurement scales (69.6%), bribery (82.4%), and poor service delivery (73%). The study concludes that the level of corruption in SMEs calls for concern and government should extend the fight against corruption to the informal sector in Nigeria

    The Barrow Neurological Institute Grading Scale as a Predictor for Delayed Cerebral Ischemia and Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Data From a Nationwide Patient Registry (Swiss SOS)

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    Vaginal atrophy in breast cancer survivors: attitude and approaches among oncologists

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    Abstract Background Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) is a relevant problem for breast cancer survivors (BCSs), in particular for those who receive aromatase inhibitors (AIs). We conducted a survey, to assess the attitude of oncologists toward the diagnosis and treatment of VVA in BCSs. Materials and Methods In 2015, 120 computer-assisted Web interviews were performed among breast oncologists. Results According to oncologists' perceptions, 60% of postmenopausal BCSs and 39.4% of premenopausal BCSs will suffer from VVA. Despite that none of the physicians considered VVA as a transient event or a secondary problem in BCSs, only half of the oncologists (48%) directly illustrated VVA to the patients as a possible consequence. Forty-one percent of the oncologists refer BCSs to gynaecologist to define VVA treatment, whereas 35.1% manages it alone. Nonhormonal treatments are preferred by most oncologists (71%). The main reason not to prescribe vaginal estrogen therapy in BCSs is the fear of increased cancer recurrence, the possible interference with tamoxifen, or AIs and the fear of medical litigation. Conclusion VVA is a relevant problem for BCSs. Great effort should be done to correctly inform health care providers about VVA problems and on the different possible available treatments
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